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Muhibah ke Azerbaijan: Kota Kerajaan Islam

BERKESEMPATAN untuk berkunjung ke Kota Baku, Azerbaijan menyisakan kenangan tersendiri bagi saya.

Menjelang akhir Desember tahun lalu, diundang oleh pemerintah Azerbaijan dalam acara Solidaritas Muslim Dunia, yang membicarakan isu-isu terkini dunia Islam.

Meskipun judulnya Solidaritas Muslim, namun yang diundang dari berbagai macam agama, baik sebagai peserta maupun narasumber.

Utusan Indonesia adalah satu-satunya yang berbicara diforum tersebut yang berjenis kelamin perempuan. Namanya juga pertemuan tokoh agama, sangat identik dengan laki-laki.

Bagi Indonesia Azerbaijan adalah sesuatu banget, karena Syekh Maulana Malik Ibrahim (hidup pada abad ke 14) pembawa Islam pertama ke tanah nusantara berasal dari Samarkand, Azarbaijan.

Azarbaijan adalah Negara di Kaukasus dipersimpangan Eropa dan Asia Barat Daya. Berbatasan dengan Rusia, Georgia, Armenia dan Iran. Di sebelah barat berbatasan dengan Turki.

Tahun 1991 negara ini merdeka dari Uni Soviet. Toko-toko ternama mereka tertata rapi di jalan protokol menyatu dengan bangunan – banguna kuno yang menakjubkan.

Kota Baku sendiri mempunyai arti angin, karena Kota Baku sangat berangin. Ketika saya berada di sana di akhir bulan Desember, cuaca lumayan dingin di tambah angin yang tidak berhenti. Bagi saya yang biasa tinggal di Jakarta menjadi tantangan tersendiri.

Di tengah kota Baku ada kawasan Old City,  Kota Tua. Old City adalah inti dari peradaban di Kota Baku.

Di Kota Tua inilah berdiri kompleks istana Shirvanshah yang sangat indah bangunan-bangunan kuno yang sangat rapat, seperti labirin. Tembok pagar, dinding, pintu jendela sangat khas Eropa Asia, dan mampu menggambarkan masa-masa peradaban yng pernah dilalui oleh kota ini.

Benteng-benteng yang dahulu dipakai oleh para tentata kerajaan, sekarang dipakai sebagai restoran dengan masakan-masakan tradisional Azarbaijan yang sangat cocok dengan lidah saya.

Di antara bangunan-bangunan tua yang masuk dalam kawasan peninggalan sejarah dunia oleh UNESCO pada tahun 2000, itu ada menara yang bernama : Maiden Tower, menara setinggi 29,5 dan berdiameter 16,5 m ini kabarnya di bangun pada abad ke 12 namun ada juga referensi yang mengatakan dibangun pada abad ke 7.

Yang menarik di menara tersebut, di dalam kontruksinya ada kayu yang menjadi penyangga, sehingga menara dirancang agar anti gempa. Keren ya.

Cerita dibalik menara itu beragam; salah satu yang sangat melegenda adalah tentang kisah seorang gadir yang bunuh diri karena akan dinikahi oleh ayahnya sendiri yang seorang raja. Apapun ceritanya, Maiden Tower yang berada di Old City ini adalah fakta sejarah yang mengalami beruntun mulai masa Zoroastrianisme, Sasania, Arab, Persia, Shirvani, Ottoman, terakhir Uni Soviet.

Di kawasan istana yang di kelilingi oleh tembok yang memisahkan antara kompleks istana dan bukan istana itu ada makan Syeikh Yahya al Bakuni yang merupakan penasehat raja. Belum ada informasi yang jelas tentang beliau, namun di dekat makam beliau dikatakan beliau adalah scientist, bukan di tulis sebagai ulama.

Bisa jadi beliau adalah ilmuan yang ulama yang menjadi penasehat raja. Istana Shirvanshah ini adalah pusat kerajaan Islam, terlihat dari bangunan masjid, makam dan ornament yang ada di dalamnya.

Selaian itu Azerbaijan yang sebelumnya selama dibawah Uni Soviet tidak banyak melakukan kegiatan-kegiatan yang bersifat keagamaan, sekarang sedang banyak membangun masjid.

Penduduk Azarbaijan sebagian besar muslim, meskipun ada juga penduduk yang beragama lain. Namun terlihat tidak ada masalah dengan perbedaan beragama. Salah satu masjid yang sangat megah adalah Masjid Aliyave yang disekilingnya di tumbuhi pohon buah zaitun yang sangat hijau.

Kota Baku mempunyai catatan kejahatan yang sangat rendah sekali. Infrastruktur yang dibangun meminimalisir kejahatan dilakukan oleh warga. Begitu juga dengan aparat yang memantau keamanan dan melindungi warga di kerahkan sangat besar.

Selain kota tua yang menjadi magnet paling utama, bagi saya, sisi lain dari kota Baku adalah pesisir Laut Kaspia. Laut Kaspia bukan laut sebenarnya tetapi adalah danau yang sangat besar. Danau tersebut berada di kawasan Iran, Rusia, Kazastan dan Turkmenistan.

Selain peninggalan abad pertengahan, saya berkesempatan untuk mengunjungi Masjid Heydar Aliyev yang terbilang bangunan baru. Masjid megah itu berada di tengah Kota Baku, di kelilingi oleh pohon zaitun yang rindang dan hijau.

Bagian lain yang harus dikunjungi adalah Heydar Aliyave Center. Bentuk bangunan ini sangat tidak biasa, terdapat lengkungan dan bergelombang. Menurut orang-orang disana bangunan ini berbentuk tanda tangan dari Heydar Aliyev pemimpin Azerbaijan pada masa Uni Soviet dan presiden pertama bagi Azerbaijan setelah merdeka. Nggak lazim kan,.. tapi keren habis.

Hari terakhir di Kota Baku bertepatan dengan peringatan Hari Ibu, 22 Desember, saya merayakan dengan Duta besar RI untuk Azarbaijan, berserta staf dan beberapa warga Indonesia yang tinggal di Kota Baku. Makan tumpeng nasi kuning menjadi jamuan istimewa setalah 5 hari mengkonsumsi makanan Eropa.

Anggia Ermarini

Ketua Umum PP Fatayat NU

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Anggia Ermarini

Ketua Umum PP Fatayat NU

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