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Menjadi PKI itu Berat, Biar Aidit Saja

Ilustrasi (Sumber foto: republika.co.id)

ENTAH mengapa isu Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI) ini terus menerus hadir ke permukaan. Padahal secara hukum sudah tidak bisa lagi beraktivitas di Indonesia semenjak berlakunya TAP MPRS Nomor 25 tahun 1966. Artinya ruang gerak bagi PKI praktis sudah tidak ada lagi.

Berkegiatan secara underground­ pun sepertinya sulit. Selain masalah hukum, secara kultural pemerintahan Soeharto juga menggalakkan film G/30S setiap tahun. Ini membuat masyarakat senantiasa waspada akan setiap hal yang mencurigakan. Apalagi dengan sempatnya buku-buku yang dinilai berbau komunisme dilarang kala itu. Jangankan menjadi anggota PKI, menjadi komunis saja sulit.

Situasi ini menimbulkan pertanyaan. Kalau mereka betul-betul ada, mana buktinya? Kalau yang muncul hanya bendera itu bisa disablon siapapun. Jika yang tampak akun media sosial atas nama PKI, itu juga bisa dibuat oleh siapa saja yang mengerti Internet. Bisa jadi mereka adalah orang yang ingin menakut-nakuti masyarakat atau berniat menimbulkan keributan.

Hal ini membuat sebagian orang sulit untuk mempercayai bahwa PKI dan komunisme bangkit dan mereka mengancam negara. Orang yang pernah berkecimpung di organisasi pemuda, mahasiswa dan pelajar cukup mengerti. Betapa susahnya merekrut kader, mengorganisasikan anggota termasuk menjalankan sebuah agenda bersama. Sebagai mantan pengurus Pelajar Islam Indonesia (PII) saya juga menyadari hal ini. Masuk PII aja orang masih berpikir, apalagi masuk PKI.

Orang yang percaya kebangkitan komunisme biasanya akan berbicara mengenai bahaya laten. Bahwa mereka berpotensi untuk muncul kembali. Ya, kalau begitu, semua hal yang membahayakan juga berpotensi untuk hadir kembali. Termasuk juga gerakan-gerakan yang pernah ingin memisahkan diri dari NKRI.

Orang diatas biasanya akan memberikan tanggapan, komunisme itu kan ideologi, bertahan dalam pikiran. Pada tahapan ideologinya kita bisa bersepakat. Namun perihal bagaimana dia mempelajari ideologi itu menjadi poin penting. Tidaklah mudah mempelajari sebuah ideologi, apalagi ideologi itu dilarang negara.

Diera kebebasan informasi saat ini sesuai petunjuk TAP MPRS yang disebutkan diawal, pada pasal tiga, mempelajari  Komunisme dan variannya hanya bisa dalam rangka kegiatan ilmiah. Oleh sebab itu seseorang sah saja membaca buku lama karya Marx, Aidit, Semaun dan sebagainya. Dan ketika menjumpai buku-buku sejenis saya betul-betul merasakan bahwa sulit untuk memahami apa itu komunisme.

Misalnya saja, kita harus memahami Marxisme dengan memulainya melalui filsafat materialisme. Sebelum menuju kesana harus dipahami  barang apa yang dinamai dengan filsafat. Di poin filsafat saja sudah banyak orang yang KO saking rumitnya pembahasan dan sekian banyak pikiran yang mesti dipahami semenjak zaman Datuk Sokrates, Mbah Aristoteles hingga Tan Sri Prof Syed Muhammad Naquib Al Attas. Mulai dari Filsafat kaum Sophis, Filsafat Tiongkok hingga Filsafat Islam.

Baru kemudian masuk kedalam materialismenya yang tentunya berbeda dengan ungkapan matre ala jaman now. Disini dapat ditemukan lagi kerumitan, ternyata ada pula yang disebut dengan materialisme mekanis. Lebih dari itu, mesti memahami pula apa yang dimaksud dengan materialisme ilmiah.

Apakah memahami filsafat materialisme sudah cukup untuk jadi komunis? Oh ternyata belum kawan. Orang harus belajar lagi apa yang disebut dengan dialektika. Tentu saja yang dimaksud bukanlah dialektika dalam arti penalaran atau berdialog dengan lawan bicara untuk mengurai suatu persoalan.

Sederhananya, dialektika merupakan cara berpikir bahwa segala sesuatu terhubung dan dan terdapat gejala-gejala perkembangannya. Dalam dialektika juga terdapat misalnya hukum kontradiksi dan juga hukum perubahan dari kuantitatif menjadi kualitatif.

Filsafat materialisme dan dialektika inilah yang kemudian digunakan untuk membaca kondisi objektif perkembangan masyarakat. Utamanya mengenai aspek ekonomi. Siapa yang menguasai alat produksi, seberapa besar individu menguasai lahan hajat hidup orang banyak dan seterusnya.

Kemudian didapatlah kategori, apabila yang menguasai banyak tanah misalnya adalah para bangsawan, maka masyarakat masih berada dalam zaman feodalisme. Apabila yang menguasainya beberapa individu saja, sementara yang lain menguras tenaga untuk mereka disebut dengan kapitalisme.

Kerumitan ini bertambah, ternyata dalam komunisme juga terdapat coraknya. Misalnya menjadi Maoisme di Tiongkok dan Leninisme di Uni Sovyet. Dan menjadi komunis di Indonesia harus menemukan coraknya sendiri karena kondisi ekonomi dan politik yang dihadapinya berbeda.

Uraian pendek ini cukuplah untuk menggambarkan bahwa menjadi seorang komunis itu tidaklah mudah. Yo bana barek (minang: sungguh berat). Walaupun seseorang sudah khatam semua hal tentang komunisme, tetap saja ada aspek yang lebih penting lainnya untuk menghalanginya. Minimal agamanya.

Orang yang religius atau setidaknya berproses dalam agamanya akan sulit untuk menjadi komunis seutuhnya. Sebab terdapat demarkasi dalam pandangan dunianya (worldview). Komunisme tidak mengurusi spiritualitas seseorang karena berbasiskan materialisme. Dan diskursus materialisme hanya ada pada dunia yang fana ini saja.

Sementara itu orang beragama, selain harus memikirkan dunianya dia wajib juga beramal untuk kehidupan setelah dia meninggal. Dia harus mempersiapkan dirinya untuk bisa menempati posisi yang baik di akhirat nantinya. Pada akhirnya, kalaupun ingin, wacana komunisme yang dia pahami hanya digunakan untuk menganalisa perkembangan ekonomi dan politik yang tengah berlangsung.

Jika dia temukan masyarakat yang miskin atau anak yatim yang terlantar, perbuatan yang dia lakukan untuk membantu mereka bukanlah karena dia mempelajari komunisme. Akan tetapi karena panggilan surat Al Ma’un yang dipahaminya dalam Al Qur’an.

Muhammad Farid Salman Alfarisi RM

Pengamat Psikologi Sosial dan Penikmat Studi Islam

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Muhammad Farid Salman Alfarisi RM

Pengamat Psikologi Sosial dan Penikmat Studi Islam

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