Manggis merupakan salah satu buah eksotis yang sedang hangat diperbincangkan. Buah manggis Indonesia berhasil mendunia dengan telah dilakukannya ekspor ke berbagai negara seperti China, Thailand dan Emirat Arab.

Kabupaten Lebak merupakan salah satu produsen manggis. Berdasarkan data Dinas Pertanian Kabupaten Lebak, jumlah tanaman manggis 268.720 pohon dengan produksi sebanyak 704 ton. Daerah sentra produksi terdapat di beberapa kecamatan antara lain Cipanas, Lebakgedong, Bayah, Cilograh, Banjarsari dan Muncang. Berdasarkan data BPS, ekspor manggis 2017 sebesar 9.167 ton dan mengalami peningkatan pada 2018 menjadi 38.830 ton.

Menurut Irwan, Kepala seksi Hortikultura, Biofarmaka dan Tanaman Hias Dinas Pertanian Kabupaten Lebak, varietas bogor raya yang ditanam usianya bervariasi dari satu hingga puluhan tahun.

Hasil produksi manggis Lebak difokuskan untuk memenuhi permintaan pasar lokal dan pasar ekspor. Ekspor manggis Lebak dilakukan sejak 2013 melalui eksportir yang ada di Bogor atau Tangeran.

“Ekspor manggis dari Kabupaten Lebak memang masih sedikit akibat kualitas buah manggis yang belum memenuhi standar. Kementerian Pertanian bersama Dinas Pertanian setempat terus membina petani untuk meningkatkan kualitas buah manggis, sehingga memenuhi standar eksport.

Pada bulan Desember 2018 (awal petik manggis) harga manggis yang dekspor adalah Rp 30 ribu per kg dan berangsur turun seiring dengan bertambahnya pasokan. Harga saat ini untuk yang kualitas ekspor adalah Rp 13 ribu per kg. Harga tersebut masih lebih baik apabila dibandingkan dengan pasar lokal, dengan harga Rp 6 ribu per kg.

“Guna mengembangkan dan meningkatkan gairah petani manggis di Lebak, pemerintah melalui Direktorat Jenderal Hortikultura tahun 2019 melaksanakan program pengembangan manggis seluas 80 hektare. Sebanyak 35 hektare tanam baru dan 45 hektare berupa perawatan,” lanjut Irwan.

Dihubungi terpisah, Direktur Perlindungan Hortikultura, Sri Wijayanti Yusuf menyatakan bahwa untuk meningkatkan mutu buah manggis, Ditjen Hortikultura bersama Dinas Pertanian setempat melakukan pembinaan dan pengawalan kepada petani manggis.

“Pembinaan ini mulai dari budidaya sampai dengan penanganan pasca panen difasilitasi dana APBN. Kita harapkan kualitas manggis kita terus meningkat dan bisa memenuhi permintaan export, sehingga dapat meningkatkan kesejahteraan petani,” ujarnya.

Beberapa hama dan penyakit yang dikeluhkan petani antara lain babi hutan. Hama ini menyerang kulit batang pohon manggis dan pada serangan berat berupa kulit terkelupas semua. Hama ini menyebabkan tanaman manggis mati. Hama babi umumnya dikendalikan dengan cara membungkus batang bawah pohon manggis dengan menggunakan karung atau seng.

Hama berikutnya adalah adanya serangan tupai yang menyebabkan buah menjadi cacat. Keberadaan monyet juga menjadi hama bagi tanaman manggis karena monyet mengambil dan mengkonsumsi buah manggis.

Penyakit yang umum dijumpai adalah getah kuning. Berdasarkan pengalaman petani, getah kuning dapat diatasi dengan pengaturan air di lahan dengan mengupayakan kondisi air dalam tanah stabil dan menghindari terjadinya benturan antar buah saat panen.

Penyakit lain yang dirasakan petani yaitu adanya karat pada daun. Penyakit karat daun dapat ditekan dengan melakukan pemangkasan cabang/ranting yang tidak produktif untuk mengurangi kelembaban iklim mikro tanamnya.

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