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Politik Populis di Indonesia Hari Ini

Ilustrasi. (Gambar: Radio Idola)

Para peneliti studi tentang Populisme, khususnya Populisme Kanan yang berkembang di AS, Turki, dan termasuk Indonesia, hampir seluruhnya menyimpulkan bahwa ciri Populisme di berbagai tempat ialah khas. Namun, tabiat universalnya ialah hanya dapat terjadi bila ada sebuah kerjasama solid yang kohesif antara kelas pemilik modal yang punya political interest (Oligark) dengan kelas menengah terdidik serta kepada akar rumput yang spartan.

Umumnya, para ahli menilai bahwa populisme, entah itu oleh karena sentimen ekonomi-politik atau-kah politik semata-mata, ialah bentuk ekspresi terhadap rasa frustrasi hebat yang tidak terdefinisikan dengan baik terhadap sebuah kondisi yang dirasa buruk. Para populis tersebut dengan sangat yakin menganggap bahwa ada penyebab dari buruknya kondisi atau kemalangan yang harus mereka tanggung. Penyebab pengalaman negatif itu dilimpahkan pada pihak tertentu yang disebut the others (sang Liyan) yang terlampau memiliki kekuatan yang besar sehingga dengan kekuatan itu para populis mengalami kemalangan. Justru karena sang liyan itu berbeda, di luar kelompok, bahkan pada titik tertentu ialah musuh, sudah tentu harus dilihat dalam kacamata persaingan yang timpang tersebut.

Cara yang kemudian diambil untuk mengatasi sang liyan itu ialah dengan menjadikannya musuh bersama. Gerakan populisme ini kemudian dimaksudkan untuk menyasar kaum elit. Donald Trump adalah contoh yang kerap disebut oleh karena kepiawaiannya dalam memanipulasi sentimen kelas menengah kulit putih Protestan yang frustasi sebab menjadi korban neo-liberalisme yang trengginas menggilas mereka. Akumulasi permainan sentimen yang terus dibakar oleh tim Trump akhirnya membawa dia ke kursi Presiden AS. Dengan modal dirinya sebagai Oligark besar, Trump sukses menjadi seorang Kapitalis yang dianggap juru selamat bagi kelas menengah yang juga merupakan para pekerja yang mengalami kemalangan oleh karena ketergantungan mereka yang luar biasa terhadap para pemodal.

Tidak dilirik Oligark

Di AS, Populisme Kanan sukses besar oleh karena hadirnya aliansi oligark dengan kelas menengah. Sedangkan di Indonesia, menurut beberapa ahli, hal yang sama akan sulit terjadi sebab tidak ada aliansi ekonomi-politik semacam itu. Para pemilik modal yang mampu membiayai gerakan politik ini justru menjadi target operasi gerakan populisme kanan kelas menengah. Kelompok populis kanan di Indonesia menuduh sang liyan, yang rata-rata merupakan oligark kelas kakap, sebagai faktor utama ketimpangan dan nasib buruk yang melekat pada mereka. Sebut saja sentimen umum di Indonesia terhadap kaum Tionghoa yang dijadikan alasan utama mengapa kemakmuran timpang.

Kelas menengah Indonesia, kaum penggerak utama populisme kanan, meski terdidik dan punya akses melebihi kelas bawah, tidak mampu menghadapi secara langsung oligark di Indonesia. Pun, sedikit oligark yang ada di belakang mereka hanya klien dari oligark yang lebih besar, bila tidak ialah oligark yang kalah modal dari oligark raksasa itu. Akibatnya, populisme kanan di Indonesia hanyalah gerakan dari, oleh kelas menengah untuk oposan rezim dan oligark kecil.

Dengan hanya ditopang para oligark kecil atau klien oligark besar, itu berarti kelas menengah itu belum memiliki political bargain yang begitu dahsyat terhadap para oligark di aras patron. Pemain utama di kalangan elit tidak melihat bahwa gerakan populisme kanan ini merupakan sebuah ancaman serius bagi mereka. Meskipun para peternak politik dan oportunis kecil lainnya coba terus menjaga momentum gerakan nir-ideologi tersebut, namun kekuatan modal dan politik piramida kecil masih terlalu kuat untuk diubah tanpa kekerasan oleh piramida sedang.

Preferensi Politik dengan Ideologi Palsu: Agama vs Nasionalisme

Paparan ahli-ahli yang mengelaborasi isu ini pada konteks Indonesia, cenderung memberikan semacam keyakinan bahwa Indonesia masih akan baik-baik saja karena gejala populisme kanan hanya nampak kuat di hyperreality seperti media sosial. Malahan, tak sedikit dari para ahli yang bersepakat bahwa semangat menggebu-gebu yang ditunjukan oleh kelas menengah ini hanya sekadar buih-buih candu oleh karena mereka secara brual ditindas dan dipaksa tunduk pada fundamentalisme pasar.

Ketidakberdayaan populisme kanan, selain oleh karena selain persoalan topangan para oligark yang tidak memadai, juga disebabkan oleh ketiadaan ideologi sebagai basis gerakan. Tindakan dan pendekatan aksi para populis kanan hanya berciri seperti be-ideologi  -ada semacam gejala idola Fora seperti dalam pengertian Francis Bacon- namun sebenarnya keseluruhan gerakan sifatnya reaktif dengan tanpa adanya sebuah ideologi kokoh dan tawaran jalan keluar yang masuk akal atas hal yang dilawan oleh gerakan populisme kanan. Mereka tidak puas terhadap situasi dan mereka juga memiliki pihak yang dituduh harus disingkirkan, namun mereka sendiri sebenarnya tidak benar-benar dapat memberikan sebuah jalan keluar apabila kondisi dan pihak yang mereka musuhi tidak ada.

Oleh sebab itu, kemunculan aksi-aksi membingungkan seperti boikot produk yang berkaitan dengan unit usaha para pemodal tidak lain ialah bentuk faktual dari ketiadaan ideologi dan pemahaman yang memadai atas gerakan populis tersebut. Seperti ramai riuhnya pasar, idolatri yang dikira merupakan fundamental root aksi justru hanya menjadi pemicu keluarnya ambiguitas. Kencederungan sikap ambigu kelas menengah yang merupakan motor populisme kanan terlihat dari partisipasi ke jalan dalam aksi dengan tanggal-tanggal cantik namun di lain hari mereka menerima gaji dari perusahaan-perusahaan dan tempat kerja mereka yang hampir sulit ditolak memiliki konektivitas gurita bisnis dengan Oligark besar.

Namun, perlu juga dicatat bahwa populisme lain lahir sebagai reaksi terhadap populisme kanan yang berpreferensi politik agama yang dipaksakan bertali-temali dengan ras dan problem identitas. Sebagai polar tandingan, populisme tandingan ini sebenarnya berwatak tak berbeda jauh dari populisme kanan yang rasis dan gemar menggoreng soal-soal identitas. Dengan menempatkan diri sebagai anti-tesis populisme kanan dalam relasi biner: umat-bangsa, radikalis-nasionalis, Khilafah-NKRI, dll., para penggerak populisme tandingan ini pun tak luput dari jebakan idola Fora. Akibatnya, debat dan gesekan antara dua kutub itu sifatnya reaktif dan membabi-buta, sama-sama bermain di wilayah identitas yang dipaksa solid, tunggal dan dikira terberi. Lebih dari itu, keduanya bahkan sama-sama tidak mencukupi untuk melahirkan sebuah basis argumentasi yang kokoh tentang apa yang diperjuangkannya sebagai alternatif yang perlu diambil entah untuk menggantikan atau mempertahankan kondisi yang menghasilkan ketidakpuasaan.

Lahirnya populisme tandingan itu, yang termanifestasi dalam populisme-nasionalisme, diterima secara umum sebagai berkah. Hal itu terjadi sebab populisme tandingan tersebut dianggap sebagai penyeimbang atau bahkan penjaga tapal agar populisme kanan tidak melompati batas. Para pendukung populisme-nasionalisme pun mempromosikan posisi taken for granted sehingga gesekan ideologis tanpa ideologi ini menjadi-jadi. Apabila dalil populisme kanan dikutip dari tradisi doktrin teologi-politik tertentu dengan legitimasi teks kitab suci, maka populisme-nasionalisme membawa ulang pendekatan tertutup terhadap debat ideologi negara. Singkatnya, keduanya-duanya punya kesenangan pada sikap triumfalis dan non-argumentatif.

Populisme menjadi Nutrisi bagi Oligark

Keseimbangan populisme semacam ini tentu menyenangkan bagi rezim dan para Oligark sebab mereka memiliki pilihan manuver yang sangat cair. Maka, secara sederhana dapat dikatakan bahwa baik Populisme Kanan yang bernafaskan agama maupun Populisme berpreferensi Nasionalisme di Indonesia itu ialah sama-sama sumber daya besar bagi peternak politik dan penguasa memuluskan motif-motif mereka. Apalagi bagi rezim yang menganut ideologi develomentalisme, maka hadirnya kebebasan memilih manuver bagi para oligark ialah investasi yang dibutuhkan guna menggaransi dukungan para oligark agar tidak mengganggu rezim yang tengah sibuk membangun jembatan, bendungan, atau bahkan membagikan hadiah sepeda.

Jadi, politik populisme kanan dengan demikian bukan ancaman selagi ia tidak berselingkuh dengan para oligark, atau para naga yang mereka benci. Akan tetapi, Populisme Nasionalisme itu juga bukan jalan keluar karena hanya memberikan nutrisi yang cukup bagi akar-akar Oligarki untuk bertahan hidup.

Albert Josua Putera Maliogha

Pembelajar Teologi di School of Theology, Boston University. Meminati Studi Agama dan Transformasi Konflik, serta Filsafat Politik.

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    In December of 2017, Donald Trump made history by recognizing Jerusalem as the captial of Israel. Why is this big news? Because by this the Jewish people of Israel are now able to press forward in bringing about the Third Temple prophesied in the Bible.

    The Jewish people deny Jesus as their Messiah and have stated that their Messiah has been identified and is waiting to be revealed. They say this man will rule the world under a one world religion called “spiritualism”.

    They even printed a coin to raise money for the Temple with Donald Trumps face on the front and with king Cyrus'(who built the second Temple) behind him. On the back of the coin is an image of the third Temple.

    The Bible says this false Messiah who seats himself in the Third Temple will be thee antichrist that will bring about the Great Tribulation, though the Jewish people believe he will bring about world peace. It will be a false peace for a period of time. You can watch interviews of Jewish Rabbi’s in Israel speaking of these things. They have their plans set in place. It is only years away!

    More importantly, the power that runs the world wants to put a RFID microchip in our body making us total slaves to them. This chip matches perfectly with the Mark of the Beast in the Bible, more specifically Revelation 13:16-18:

    He causes all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their foreheads, and that no one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.

    Here is wisdom. Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666.

    Referring to the last days, this could only be speaking of a cashless society, which we have yet to see, but are heading towards. Otherwise, we could still buy or sell without the mark amongst others if physical money was still currency. RFID microchip implant technology will be the future of a one world cashless society containing digital currency. It will be implanted in the right-hand or the forehead, and we cannot buy or sell without it! We must grow strong in Jesus. AT ALL COSTS, DO NOT TAKE IT!

    Then a third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives his mark on his forehead or on his hand, he himself shall also drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation. He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb. And the smoke of their torment ascends forever and ever; and they have no rest day or night, who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name.” (Revelation 14:9-11).

    People have been saying the end is coming for many years, but we need two key things. One, the Third Temple, and two, the technology for a cashless society to fulfill the prophecy of the Mark of the Beast.

    VISIT http://WWW.BIBLEFREEDOM.COM TO SEE PROOF FOR THESE THINGS AND MUCH MORE! TELL YOUR FRIENDS AND FAMILY. SHARE THIS MESSAGE!

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Tentang Penulis

Albert Josua Putera Maliogha

Pembelajar Teologi di School of Theology, Boston University. Meminati Studi Agama dan Transformasi Konflik, serta Filsafat Politik.

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