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Melacak Akar Post Truth di Dunia Islam

DUNIA dewasa ini diperhadapkan secara biner (bertentangan), dan memaksa setiap orang untuk memilih ada di posisi mana dari pertentangan yang ada. Wajah binerian ini muncul secara semu di dunia maya, dan menjalar secara masif di dunia nyata.

Semua bermula dari hal sederhana, yakni beda pilihan. Bisa beda pilihan menu kuliner, selebriti favorite, ustadz panutan, gaya busana, dan lebih-lebih beda pilihan politik dan aliran keagamaan. Beda pilihan tersebut begitu mengakar sebagai sebuah jalan hidup, jadinya setiap kritik atau sanggahan atas pilihannya menjadi alarm kiamat dalam proses komunikasi yang dibangun.

Dalam suasana binerian tersebut, lorong-lorong sempit fanatisme buta (radikalisme), sentimen emosi, ujaran kebencian, serta klaim kebenaran dan kuasa kata seperti munafik, sesat, bid’ah, atau kafir mengambil bentuk komunikasi agresif yang mendorong pertentangan tersebut semakin lebar.

Pada tahap ini, emosi dan keyakinan menjadi sebuah jalan kebenaran yang tidak dapat ditawar alias harga mati dalam membangun diskursus yang sehat. Meskipun segudang fakta, pendapat pakar, yurisprudensi, atau konsensus ahli telah dihadirkan untuk membuktikan argumentasi yang disampaikan.

Fenomena ini terutama terjadi dalam diskursus yang dibangun oleh kelompok-kelompok kepentingan dengan membawa dalil-dalil keagamaan. Juga para buzzer yang telah menjadikan hoaks sebagai salah satu bagian dari industri berita dan konsultan pencitraan. Lebih dalam lagi, penomena ini utamanya dijumpai dalam konflik politik dan aliran pemikiran di dunia Islam.

Tertangkapnya beberapa oknum yang diduga melakukan ujaran kebencian oleh unit patrol cyber Kepolisian RI menunjukan bahwa fenomena ini telah menjadi sebuah suatu keniscayaan dalam komunikasi publik. Belum lagi, beberapa tokoh agama yang telah dijadikan tersangka karena menjadikan media dakwah untuk menyebarkan kebencian dan informasi bohong (hoaks).

Revolusi teknologi informasi dengan hadirnya internet dan media sosial secara radikal membuka sekat-sekat komunikasi lintas tempat, umur, gender, etnis, dan ideologi, sekaligus makin memperluas dan memperparah intensitas konflik.

Jika dahulu konflik hanya berlangsung di tingkat elit dan pengambil keputusan, dan dapat dilokalisasi atau dikanalisasi dalam saluran-saluran komunikasi tertentu, sekarang justru telah meluas pada level akar rumput dan tumbuh liar tanpa kanal pengendali. Pada skala yang rendah muncul dalam wajah hate speech, dan pada skala yang tinggi muncul dalam bentuk provokasi dan tindakan kriminal.

Beberapa pakar komunikasi memotret gejala baru warga dunia maya atau warganet ini dengan sebuah terminologi yang disebut dengan Post Truth. Irwansyah mengutip Keyes (2004)  dalam artikelnya berjudul “Pasca Kebenaran Riset dan Tatakelola Informasi” menyebutkan bahwa Zaman Post Truth merupakan zaman yang mencerminkan keadaan ketika kaburnya batas-batas antara kebenaran dan kebohongan, kejujuran dan kecurangan, fiksi dan non fiksi.

Apalagi muncul adanya peristiwa-peristiwa yang memperlihatkan kebohongan menggantikan kebenaran, emosi menggantikan kejujuran, analisis personal menggantikan informasi yang terverifikasi, dan satu opini menggantikan opini ganda (konsensus).

Dan, Post Truth mengambil tempat yang sangat subur dalam komunikasi politik dan diskursus keagamaan. Para kelompok kepentingan memanfaatkan fenomena ini untuk mengambil keuntungan-keuntungan statis dan strategis, melalui rekayasa peristiwa dan manipulasi pesan untuk membangkitkan emosi pengikutnya serta menyerang kelompok kepentingan lainnya.

Anehnya, jika ditelusuri lebih dalam, post truth tumbuh subur dalam diskursus politik yang membawa simbol-simbol keagamaan. Pasca reformasi, ruang kebebasan berserikat dan berekspresi mewadahi munculnya beragam ormas, parpol, LSM, lembaga pendidikan, lembaga riset dengan dukungan media komunikasinya. Ruang ini sekaligus menjadi arena pergumulan atau kontestasi baru antar kelompok untuk meneguhkan superioritas mereka.

Pada titik ini, jarak antara fanatisme dan radikalisme, hikmah dan rasionalitas, emosi dan akal sehat, serta kritik dan hate speech menjadi kabur. Dalam bahasa Prof. Mahfud MD bahwa fanatisme memang dibutuhkan dalam beragama, namun fanatisme yang tidak dibarengi dengan keluasan, memahami perbedaan inter dan antar agama menjadi pemicu lahirnya radikalisme.

Lalu, bagaimana melacak akar sejarah munculnya fenomena Post Truth dalam Islam? Terdapat dua setting sejarah di era dakwah Rasulullah Saw yang banyak dikutip oleh para sejarawan Islam yang dapat digunakan untuk membingkai akar munculnya Post Truth dalam dunia Islam.

Pertama, manakala Rasulullah Saw digugat oleh seseorang bernama Dzul Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi ketika terjadi pembagian ghonimah (harta rampasan perang) dari Perang Hunain oleh Rasulullah Saw. Dia berkata, “Berlaku adillah wahai Muhammad, karena sesungguhnya engkau tidak berlaku adil. Rasulullah Saw menjawab, “Celaka engkau, siapakah yang akan berbuat adil jika aku sendiri tidak berbuat adil? Sungguh aku pasti celaka dan merugi jika tidak berlaku adil.”

Kedua, petisi yang diajukan oleh Kaum Anshar dalam kasus yang sama, manakala mereka mengajukan keberatan atas tindakan Rasulullah Saw yang membagi ghanimah secara berlebihan kepada tokoh dan bangsawan quraisyi yang baru memeluk Islam, seperti Abu Sufyan bin Harb, Hakim bin Hizam, dan Shafwan bin Umayyah.

Petisi ini disampaikan oleh Saad bin Ubadah ra. Saad berkata, “Wahai Rasulullah, terjadi gejolak dalam diri kaum Anshar terkait pembagian harta rampasan perang kepada kaummu sendiri dan menyerahkan bagian yang amat besar kepada kabilah Quraisy. Sementara orang-orang Anshar tidak mendapatkan apapun.” Ketidakpuasan para sahabat Anshar ini dapat diselesaikan dengan bijaksana oleh beliau.

Sekilas dua kejadian di atas sama, yakni bagaimana Dzul Khuwaisirah dan Abu Ubadah ra ‘mempertanyakan’ kebijaksanaan Rasulullah Saw dalam hal pembagian harta rampasan perang. Pembedanya adalah, Abu Ubadah R.A menyampaikan petisi dari sebuah kelompok (jamaah), dan disampaikan secara santun dan etis.

Sementara yang dilakukan oleh Dzul Khuwaisirah, langsung menuduh. Ya, melayangkan diksi “berlaku adillah” sama saja dengan menyerang dengan kata “anda tidak adil”, harta itu ditujukkan kepada Rasulullah SAW sang pembawa risalah langit. Padahal, untuk kebijaksanaan Rasulullah Saw yang kelak menjadi yurisprudensi hukum, beliau selalu terjaga dari kesalahan.

Dalam bimbingan Allah Swt, segala bentuk kebijaksanaan Rasulullah SAW bisa diambil dan dapat melampaui kebenaran semu yang dipahami dan diyakini para sahabat. Kebijaksanaan tersebut dapat berada di luar nalar manusia biasa (beyond the truth), sebuah kebenaran yang pernah ditunjukkan oleh Nabi Khidir AS kepada Nabi Musa AS. Menghadapi kebenaran model ini, manusia hanya bisa diam, menerima, dan menjalankannya.

Nubuat lanjutan Rasulullah Saw atas kelancangan Dzul Khuwaisirah, bahwa dari dirinya akan muncul golongan pembuat fitnah dalam Islam yang disebut dengan golongan khawarij. Apakah khawarij ini merupakan bagian dari komunitas Post Truth saat ini, wallahu’alam bissawab!

Pada setting lain, suatu ketika Imam Ali as berjumpa dengan salah seorang rakyatnya, dan terlibat dialog singkat. Sang imam ditanyai.

“Mengapa di jaman para khalifah sebelumnya tidak terjadi fitnah dan konflik seperti dijaman Anda?” Imam Ali as menjawab singkat, “Karena di jaman Abu Bakar, Umar, dan Utsman, rakyatnya seperti saya, sementara di saat saya menjadi khalifah, rakyatnya seperti Anda”

Dialog ini dapat ditelaah dari tiga pendekatan untuk menggali akar muncul dan meluasnya fenomena Post Truth di dunia Islam. Pertama, bahwa si penanya mungkin saja adalah masuk kategori sahabat nabi karena hidup sejaman dengan Ali dan mungkin hidup sejaman dengan Nabi Saw. Namun, gelagat konflik kekuasaan yang muncul di era akhir Khalifah Utsman telah begitu parah membelah umat Islam dalam faksi-faksi politik.

Kedua, si penanya memang orang bodoh yang mulai terpengaruh oleh suasana konflik yang muncul di tengah umat Islam dan mencoba mempertanyakan kondisi tersebut kepada Imam Ali AS untuk mendapatkan jawaban yang rasional dan obyektif.

Ketiga, si penanya sejatinya seorang partisan yang tidak suka dengan kepemimpinan Imam Ali as dan ‘menyerangnya’ dengan pertanyaan di atas. Dalam hal ini, si penanya tidak lagi mempertimbangkan kealiman dan keluasan ilmu dari Imam Ali AS juga kedudukan khusus Imam Ali AS dalam dakwah Islam. Di sinilah gejala Post Truth itu bisa dibaca dari perspektif politik.

Sehingga spontanitas jawaban Imam Ali AS menunjukan bahwa ia sedang melayani seorang oposisi yang meragukan kapasitas kepemimpinannya sehingga ia tidak perlu membuang waktu untuk memberi penjelasan selain menyanggah dengan jawaban pendek dan cukup reflektif untuk direnungkan oleh si penanya.

Dialog-dialog teologis dan politis di atas adalah tonggak peradaban untuk melacak akar Post Truth yang sejatinya bukan fenomena baru dalam dunia Islam, tetapi telah terjadi di masa Rasulullah Saw dan para sahabat. Intensitasnya makin luas ketika transformasi kepemimpinan Islam ke Bani Umayyah yang melibatkan penggunaan mimbar-mimbar masjid sebagai media menyerang lawan-lawan politik.

Manakala umat jaman now dihadapkan lagi pada kondisi di atas, tidak perlu kaget apalagi galau, karena yurisprudensi sejarah Islam sejatinya telah menorehkan penomena tersebut. Sekarang pilihannya adalah apakah Anda bagian dari komunitas Post Truth atau komunitas rasional?

Ahmad Mony

Baca, Diskusi, Tulis

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Ahmad Mony

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