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OPM dan Geopolitik Papua

Banyak pendapat umum, munculnya Organisasi Papua Merdeka sebagai buah akibat ketimpangan pembangunan (pembangunan yang Jakartasentris). Namun dengan adanya penembakan terhadap 30-an pekerja proyek pembangunan jembatan di Kabupaten Nduga, Papua, di tengah upaya pemerintah mengingkatkan pembangunan di sana menunjukkan bahwa persoalan Papua bukan sekedar persoalan pembangunan. Serangan yang diduga dilakukan oleh kelompok bersenjata justru terjadi ketika pemerintah sedang menggiatkan pembangunan di kawasan yang selama ini dianggap dianak-tirikan oleh Jakarta.

Dengan kata lain, asumsi yang menyatakan bahwa faktor pembangunan yang menjadi sabab utama masalah konflik dan separatisme yang terjadi di Papua tak bisa menjadi satu-satunya pegangan untuk menganalisis dan mencari alternatif penyelesaian masalah di Papua.

Apalagi jika kita mengikutsertakan fakta sejarah bahwa sejak proklamasi kemerdekaan Indonesia pada tahun 1945, Pemerintah Belanda telah memisahkan daerah Papua dari Hindia untuk mempersiapkan Papua dan penduduknya untuk menjadi Pemerintahan tersendiri.

Terutama jika kita merujuk pada momen politik penting seperti Pemerintah Belanda menunjuk anggota masyarakat lokal yang terpilih di Papua sebagai 50% dari Nieuw Guinea Raad (legislatif), pengenalan bendera bintang Kejora yang berkibar berdampingan dengan bendera Belanda, dan pengenalan lagu kebangsaan Papua “Hai Tanahku Papua”.

Semua fakta ini tentu tak bisa disederhanakan dengan satu asumsi deteministik persoalan pembangunan. Asumsi deterministik semacam ini juga menjebak kita bahwa seakan-akan persoalan Papua adalah sebuah potret yang berdiri sendiri, terlepas dari yang lain, bahkan seakan-akan berdiri di ruang kosong.

Pemahaman kita tentang Papua sebagai sebuah ruang didominasi oleh asumsi deterministik tentang persoalan pembangunan. Paradigma semacam ini menutup mata kita bahwa Papua sebagai sebuah ruang juga memiliki beragam dimensi, terutama dalam dimensi internasional dan geopolitik, yang didalamnya tak menutup kemungkinan adanya konstestasi beragam kepentingan, bahkan hegemoni dan dominasi.

Secara geopolitik, Papua sebagai sebuah ruang bukan hanya semata-mata diartikan sebagai sebuah wilayah teritorial. Melainkan lebih dimaknai sebagai sebuah lingkungan stategis.

Berangkat dari pemikiran W. Michael Guilliot dan Libor Frank, lingkungan strategis terdapat tiga jenis, pertama, lingkungan antar negara-negara bertetangga. Kedua, dalam kawasan regional yang lebih luas, dan ketiga, hubungan negara dangan negara-negara kuat lainnya (major power), baik secara regional dan internasional.

Dengan pendekatan ini, kita memahami Papua bukan hanya semata-mata sebagai sebuah hamparan wilayah yang luas, melainkan sebagai sebuah kawasan yang didalamnya tak menutup kemungkinan menjadi arena ketegangan kepentingan diantara negara-negara di kawasan serta dinamikanya tak terlepas dari adanya pengaruh negara hegemon (negara pemegang hegemoni) di sekitar kawasan tersebut.

Teater Pasifik: Geopolitik Pasifik Selatan dan Hegemoni Australia

Secara geografis, Papua berbatasan dengan Laut Halmahera dan Samudra Pasifik di utara, Laut Arafura dan Australia di selatan, Papua New Guinea di sebelah timur, dan Laut Arafura, Laut banda dan Maluku di sebelah barat.

Dalam perspektif regionalisme, Papua merupakan bagian dari kawasan Pasifik Selatan. Ditinjau dari segi lalu lintas niaga, letak kawasan Pasifik Selatan sangat potensial dan stategis.

Posisinya yang mengantarai beberapa benua secara otomatis menjadikannya sebagai jalur perdagangann yang ramai. Kenyataan ini ditunjang oleh pesatnya perkembangaan industri dan tingkat konsumsi masyarakat Asia, Australia dan Amerika. Struktur fisik kawasan yang terbuka serta posisinya di tengah tiga benua membuat Pasifik Selatan sangan tepat dijadikan sebagai benteng pertahanan alami bagi wilayah sekitarnya.

Dalam sejarahnya, pada abad ke-19 kebanyakan dari negara-negara kepulauan di Pasifik Selatan berada di bawah jajahan Britania Raya, Perancis, Jerman dan Amerika Serikat. Pada Perang Dunia II, kawasan ini menjadi salah satu teater peperangan penting dalam perang antara Sekutu melawan Jepang.

Jepang bermaksud menjadikan kawasan Pasifik Selatan sebagai benteng pertahanan dalam membendung tentara sekutu untuk mencapai Asia Tenggara. Sebaliknya, kawasan ini juga digunakan oleh tentara sekutu (AS) sebagai titik awal serangan baliknya untuk merebut kembali Filipina. Bahkan saat perang Korea meletus (1950), kawasan Pasifik Selatan dijadikan sebagai strategic line of communication oleh AS, terutama dalam pengiriman pasukan militernya dan logistik. Maka tak berlebihan jika kawasan Pasifik Selatan seringkali disebut sebagai “Teater Pasifik”.

Kawasan Pasifik Selatan (sering disebut dalam berbagai literatur sebagai kawasan Oceania atau Pasifik Barat Daya) adalah kawasan yang mayoritas dihuni oleh negara-negara kepulauan dengan luas wilayah dan populasi yang kecil, dikombinasikan dengan hanya tiga negara yang memiliki daerah daratan (mainland) yang cukup luas, yaitu Australia, Selandia Baru, dan Papua Nugini.

Dari ketiga negara ini, Australia memiliki luas wilayah dan jumlah populasi yang terbesar, juga memiliki proporsi kekuatan militer dan ekonomi yang terdepan untuk kawasan Pasifik Selatan. Faktor-faktor demikian membuat Australia dapat dikategorikan sebagai sebuah kekuatan hegemon di kawasan Pasifik Selatan.

Sebagai salah satu aktor utama di kawasan tersebut, Australia memiliki perhatian tersendiri akan stabilitas regional kawasan Pasifik karena dinamika yang terjadi dalam lingkup kawasan Pasifik akan memiliki imbas tersendiri bagi kepentingan nasional Australia. Maka, sedapat mungkin, Australia menginkorporasikan perhatiannya terhadap situasi ini ke dalam kebijakan-kebijakan luar negerinya.

Peran Australia sebagai patron di kawasan Pasifik Selatan juga dapat dilihat dengan mudah dari usaha-usaha nation-building yang dipimpin oleh Australia di negara-negara kawasan Pasifik Selatan. Australia memiliki andil besar sebagai pemimpin dalam proses nation-building di Papua Nugini (Bougainville Peace Process and Enhanced Cooperation Program atau ECP), Timor Leste (International Force for East Timor atau INTERFET) dan Kepulauan Solomon.

Di Kepulauan Solomon sendiri, usaha-usaha Australia termanifestasi dalam peran utamanya di Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (RAMSI). RAMSI merupakan kerjasama strategis antara Kep. Solomon dan 15 negara Pasifik lainnya yang tergabung dalam Pacific Islands Forum (PIF), dengan Australia sebagai pemimpin dan kontributor utama.

Banyak negara-negara pasifik yang bergantung pada Australia melalui Pasifik Forum yang dimotori oleh Australia. Australia sebagai negara donor terkemuka di wilayah ini yang mendukung pembangunan ekonomi dan sosial baik bilateral maupun regional. Bahkan Australia menjadi sumber utama impor dan investasi bagi kawasan ini dan memimipin kerjasama pertahanan, dan security partner.

Australia juga memiliki andil besar dalam pembentukan Melanesia Spearhead Group (MSG) yang didalamnya berisi negara-negara Pasifik Selatan seperti Vanuatu, Papua Nugini, Kep. Solomon, Timor Leste yang aktif menyuarakan kemerdekaan Papua.

Dukungan Australia terhadap gerakan kemerdekaan Papua telah banyak terekam sejarah. Setelah pemerintah Australia berhasil memainkan proses referendum Timor-Timur yang digelar PBB pada masa 1990an, maka dibentuklah Task Force Papua oleh pemerintah Australia, yang diketuai Jenderal Peter Cosgrove, bersama tujuh staf ahli untuk mengkaji permasalahan serta prospek kemerdekaan Papua.

Para senator dan politisi Australia juga terlibat langsung untuk mendukung kemerdekaan Papua. Senator Kerry Nettle, anggota parlemen dari Partai Hijau misalnya, terbukti terlibat dalam memperjuangkan suaka politik bagi 42 warga Papua. Bahkan, pada tahun 2006, Nettle mendapatkan penghargaan “Mahkota Papua” dari kelompok pro-Papua Merdeka di Sydney.

Selanjutnya, dari Partai Demokrat Australia, Senator Andrew Barlet yang ikut memberikan dukungan bagi kampanye penentuan nasib sendiri (self determination) bagi rakyat Papua. Barlet juga pernah mengirimkan surat kepada Sekjen PBB untuk meninjau kembali keabsahan Pepera 1969.

Dukungan terhadap kemerdekaan Papua selain datang dari para pejabat negara dan tokoh politik Australia, juga datang dari sejumlah organisasi masyarakat, NGO hingga Gereja, yang kemudian dapat kita kategorikan sebagai Non-State Actor (NSA).

Gereja Katholik Caritas Australia (The Catholic Agency for Overseas Aid and Development) bekerjasama dengan sekitar 154 organisasi di berbagai wilayah dan negara di seluruh dunia pernah mengeluarkan pernyataan resminya yang mendukung secara langsung kemerdekaan Papua serta menanyakan kembali mengenai sejarah dan keabsahan Pepera di Papua. Semua dukungan ini tak terlepas dari peranan strategis wilayah Papua bagi Australia sebagai negara hegemon di wilayah Pasifik Selatan.

Dilihat dari segi geostrategis, Papua merupakan benteng, dan sekaligus bisa menjadi ancaman bagi Australia. Posisi Papua dengan pulau-pulau yang berdekatan dengannya membentuk atap bagi garis pantai utaranya. Sisi utara itulah kunci strategis pertahanan Australia, sehingga tidaklah berlebihan jika dikatakan bahwa kepulauan Indonesia memiliki arti penting bagi Australia, utamanya letak Papua yang dianggap sebagai buffer zone bagi pertahanan Australia serta memiliki kemungkinan untuk melakukan serangan terhadap Australia lewat Papua.

Argumen diatas juga diperkuat oleh hasil penelitan Dr. Evatt (1943) yang menyebutkan bahwa Irian Barat merupakan bagian dari ”payung” strategis pulau-pulau yang oleh Australia dipandang penting sekali yang juga merupakan bagian dari lingkungan pengaruhnya yang strategis. Posisi Australia terhadap Irian Barat sangat penting karena Australia mempunyai pengaruh politik yang dominan di kalangan negara-negara Pasifik Selatan. Dan Australia tidak dapat mengubah geografinya.

Untuk mempertahankan dan memperluas pengaruhnya di kawasan Pasifik Selatan, Papua sangat bernilai strategis bagi Australia. Dalam aspek historis, pada Perang Pasifik, Indonesia dulu masih merupakan wilayah Hindia-Belanda, dan merupakan benteng yang amat penting bagi Australia.

Tapi pada tahun 1960-1970an, Indonesia dipandang sebagai ancaman karena dianggap melakukan politik ekspansionis yang agresif. Hal ini tampak pada upaya pengembalian Irian Barat, konfrontasi dengan Malaysia dan integrasi Timor-Timur. Nilai strategis secara politik dan pertahanan, Australia lebih mudah dalam memberikan pengaruhnya jika Papua lepas dari NKRI, selain itu Papua dianggap sebagai mata rantai yang sangat essensial dalam garis pertahanan Australia.

Arjuna Putra Aldino

Mahasiswa Pascasarjana, Sekolah Kajian Stratejik dan Global, Universitas Indonesia

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Arjuna Putra Aldino

Mahasiswa Pascasarjana, Sekolah Kajian Stratejik dan Global, Universitas Indonesia

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