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Jangankan Cadar, Berjilbab Saja Dilarang

Ilustrasi: Luki Ahmadi Hari Wardoyo

BERITA headline dari salah satu tv swasta nasional tentang larangan bercadar di UIN Sunan Kalijaga Jogjakarta membuat Kyai Saleh tersenyum kecut, lalu menggelengkan kepala. Negeri ini seolah tidak pernah kehabisan energi untuk gaduh. Setiap saat, ada-ada saja isu yang digaduhkan.  Dan, agama adalah isu yang paling digemari untuk digaduhkan. Ketegangan identitas mudah meledak apabila agama dijadikan pemicunya. Negeri ini sepertinya tidak belajar sejarah. Kekeliruan tata kelola identitas agama pernah melahirkan konflik sosial yang mengerikan.

Ah, Kyai Saleh mendengus. Tivi segera dimatikan. Suara azan Magrib sudah berkumandang dari masjid Nurul Autar.

***

“Ais.. saya tahu kamu pasti ingin bertanya tentang pelarangan cadar,” kata Kyai Saleh di majelis pengajian ba’da Magrib.

“Eh, kenapa ki bisa tahu, Kyai,” Ais terkejut. Dia tidak menyangka kalau Kyai Saleh bisa menebak isi kepalanya.

“Kamu mudah ditebak. Rasa ingin tahumu tinggi, dan semua kegaduhan di luar sana pasti membuat penasaran,”

Ais tersenyum simpul.

“Jadi, bagaimana ji pendapat ta Kyai?”

“Bukannya kampus memang suka melarang-larang. Dulu waktu saya mahasiswa dilarang rambut panjang, dilarang pakai sandal, dilarang pakai sarung, dilarang pakai kaos oblong. Kayaknya tidak heboh ji. Biasa saja.”

“Jadi? Biasa ji itu pelarangan cadar, Kyai?”

“Iya… sangat biasa. Dan tidak layak dihebohkan. Pelarangan dan pewajiban punya implikasi yang sama. Relasi kuasa. Di sekolah-sekolah tertentu, semua siswi diwajibkan memakai jilbab sesuai dengan cara pandang pengelolanya. Jilbabnya besar-besar. Pihak sekolah standar etika yang sudah ditetapkan, dan semua yang masuk wajib mematuhi itu. Di sekolah Katolik, semua siswa yang mau belajar disana wajib belajar agama Katolik dan tidak diperkenankan pelajaran agama lain. Ini fenomena sub-kultur. Selama ini kita memberi ruang toleransi terhadap fenomena seperti itu. Kalau tidak mau ikut aturan sekolah mereka ya jangan masuk ke situ. Selesai!”

“Tapi alasan pelarangan cadar yang kuliat di Tivi itu lucu ki Kyai. Dilarang karena terkait radikalisme. Ada temanku pake cadar, tidak radikal ji tawwa,” lanjut Ais

“Iya Kyai. Saya dengar alasannya juga karena susah dideteksi nanti kalau ada yang curang ikut ujian. Lucu saya dengar, Kyai. Kenapa ada kampus begitu,” Sampara ikut menyela.

“Setiap pelarangan memang lucu alasannya. Larangan memakai sandal misalnya dikaitkan dengan etika. Memakai sandal dianggap menyalahi kepantasan sosial. Padahal, kalau ke masjid kita lebih senang menggunakan sandal jepit. Gonrong dilarang karena dianggap simbol kenakalan, padahal Arbi Sanit sampai tua gonrong, tidak ada yang sebut nakal. Larangan merokok bagi siswa dianggap kenakalan, padahal Soekarno merokok, beberapa orang Kyai, teman saya perokok berat.”

“Trus kenapa bisa heboh soal cadar itu sekarang ya, Kyai?” Tanya Faris

“Karena orang suka gaduh, Suka baper. Dan suka cari bahan untuk diperbincangkan. Dunia maya kan karakternya begitu”

“Masa sesederhana itu penyebabnya, Kyai?”

“Iya… kalau kejadian ini terjadi pada era sebelum sekarang, ndak hebohlah. Paling cuma jadi polemik sesaat.”

“Pasti ada alasan lain yang lebih subtantif Kyai. Saya rasa tidak sederhana, ini persoalan,” Yusran ikut menyela.

“Serius ta Yusran!” Ejek Faris

Kyai Saleh tersenyum kecil mendengar ejekan Faris. Wajah Yusran memang sedang serius. Dia tampak belum puas dengan penjelasan Kyai Saleh sebelumnya.

“Ya…. Mungkin karena dinding sub-kultur kampus sudah dijebol oleh media sosial. Kampus sudah menjadi obyek sosial yang seenaknya diperbincangkan dan ditakar dengan standar etika umum. Orang tidak lagi bisa menilai kampus sebagai wilayah otonom yang sejak dari dulu memiliki standar etika sendiri yang berbeda dengan luar kampus, seperti yang saya sebutkan diatas.”

“Tapi kalau dibincang dari sudut pandang moralitas keagamaan, bagaimana Kyai?” Yusran melanjutkan pertanyaan.

“Begini. Cadar itu masuk dalam polemik fiqihiyah atau biasa disebut sebagai khilafiyah. Ada pendapat ulama yang mewajibkan, ada yang tidak. Imam Syafii menganggap wajah perempuan bukan aurat dan boleh dilihat. Jadi, kalau khilafiyah, maka terserah setiap individu untuk melaksanakan apa yang diyakininya.”

“Nah, itu maksud saya Kyai. Pelarangan cadar itu berimplikasi pada pelarangan keyakinan. Beda dengan pelarangan baju kaos, gondrong dan sebagainya.”

“Khilafiyah itu sebenarnya tidak berimplikasi keyakinan tetapi pilihan epistemologis. Pilihan politik beragama. Apapun bentuk yang kita pilih, ada pendapat ulama yang menjadi legitimasinya. Persoalannya adalah jika seseorang telah memilih pandangan salah satu ulama, itu wajib untuk dihormati. Jika sudut pandang ini yang digunakan maka pelarangan kampus terhadap cadar sebenarnya tidak relevan. Cadar adalah salah satu teknik berpakaian yang spiritnya dari agama, dan sebaiknya jangan dilarang-larang.”

“Nahh…berarti keliru kan, pelarangan itu,” Faris menyela lagi

“Kalau kampus tidak dianggap sebagai wilayah otonom ya keliru.”

“Artinya, Kyai mau bilang kampus itu rezim yang semena-mena membuat aturan.”

“Bukan. Saya mau bilang sebenarnya pelarangan ini menunjukkan kampus sedang kalah.”

“Maksud ta Kyai?”

“Cadar itu bagian dari diskursus keagamaan. Fenomena yang seharusnya didiskusikan ala kaum intelektual. Cara mencegahnya adalah dengan memperkuat nalar keagamaan yang dipilih oleh kampus. Diskusi terbuka, seminar dan sebagainya. Jika wacana moderasi yang dipilih oleh kampus dikelola dengan baik dan menjadi narasi dominan di kampus, maka pilihan untuk bercadar akan terabaikan. Persoalannya kampus tidak memilih itu. Yang dipilih malah penggunaan otoritas. Dunia kampus yang konon menjadi arena transaksi pengetahuan, justru memilih cara-cara politik dengan menggunakan kekuasaan. Jadinya, ya gaduh.”

Majelis pengajian terdiam. Penjelasan Kyai Saleh tampak cukup masuk akal bagi mereka. Melihat para jamaah terdiam, Kyai Saleh tiba-tiba melontarkan kalimat mengejutkan.

“Oh..ya. Saya ingat. Almarhum Kyai Barak, kawan saya di Jawa, pernah melakukan peraturan gila. Jangankan bercadar, dia melarang semua anak-anak muridnya memakai jilbab.”

Semua terperanjat kaget mendengar kalimat Kyai Saleh

“Kenapa bisa, Kyai?”

“Yaa… kan santri, bukan santriwati”

Deeee Kyai, serius tong maki!” gerutu Ais. Jamaah lain hanya bisa tertawa.

Pengajian segera ditutup. Waktu salat Isa sudah tiba!

Pepi Al-Bayqunie

Bukan penulis, hanya mau menulis. Pengagum Gus Dur. Novelnya yang sudah terbit adalah Calabai: Perempuan dalam Tubuh Lelaki (2016).

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Pepi Al-Bayqunie

Bukan penulis, hanya mau menulis. Pengagum Gus Dur. Novelnya yang sudah terbit adalah Calabai: Perempuan dalam Tubuh Lelaki (2016).

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