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The Young Karl Marx: Memahami Pemikiran Marx Muda

poster film (foto: http://www.niederlausitz-aktuell.de/)

JUDUL asli film ini, “Der Junge Karl Marx” dalam bahasa Jerman atau “Le Jeune Karl Marx” dalam bahasa Perancis. Sebenarnya film ini sudah beredar hampir setahun sejak pertama kali diputar luas dibulan Februari-Maret 2017 silam. Hanya saja, saya baru sempat menyaksikannya. Salah satu alasan utamanya, karena film ini belum disertai subtitle Indonesia ataupun Inggris.

Maklum, hampir keseluruhan percakapan dalam film ini menggunakan bahasa Jerman dan Perancis. Di Indonesia sendiri, film ini tidak sepopuler film-film lainnya. Bisa jadi phobia komunisme menjadi penyebabnya. Padahal sesungguhnya ilmu dan pengetahuan bisa datang darimana saja tanpa batasan.

Film ini menggambarkan titik balik pergulatan pemikiran Marx. Beragam alur coba dihadirkan dalam film ini. Mulai dari cerita pilu kehidupan keluarganya bersama Jenny von Westphalen yang kesulitan secara ekonomi, kisah persahabatannya dengan Friedrich Engels, hingga dinamika perjuangannya yang tidak hanya berhadapan dengan kaum borjuasi, tetapi juga bertarung ide dan gagasan dengan sesama aktivis politik di zamannya.

Mulai dari Arnold Ruge, Joseph Proudhon, Mikhail Bakunin, Wilhelm Weitling, hingga Friedrich Engels sendiri. Klimaksnya adalah lahirnya manifesto komunis yang kelak menjadi kitab perjuangan bagi kaum proletar diseluruh belahan dunia.

Film ini dibuka dengan kalimat-kalimat pengantar yang sepertinya ingin menyampaikan pesan emosional kepada siapapun yang menyaksikannya.

“Untuk mengumpulkan kayu, seseorang haruslah merusak kayu yang hidup dan mengumpulkan kayu yang mati. Tidak merubah apapun dari asalnya. Hanya apa yang sudah dipisah, yang pindah dari asalnya. Meskipun ini adalah perbedaan esensial, kalian anggap ini adalah pencurian, dan menghukum mereka selayaknya. Montesquieu berkata ada dua jenis pengrusakan. Ketika seseorang tidak memperhatikan hukum. Dan satu lagi, ketika hukum yang merusak mereka. Kamu telah menghapuskan perbedaan antara mencuri dan mengumpulkan. Tetapi kamu salah jika menganggap itu semua untuk keuntunganmu. Orang-orang melihat hukumannya tapi tidak kejahatannya. Dan ketika mereka tidak melihat kejahatannya, ketika mereka dihukum, kau harus menakuti mereka. Karena mereka akan membalas dendam”.

Situasi inilah yang coba digambarkan Marx melalui artikel-artikelnya. Situasi ketidakadilan itu harus dilawan, apapun resiko yang akan dihadapi. Dan menulis adalah bagian terpenting dalam strategi perjuangannya. Dengan menulis, keresahan disebarluaskan, ide ditawarkan, dan gagasan ditanamkan. Melalui tulisan pula perang mulai dilancarkan, perlawanan dikobarkan, dan pemberontakan dikumandangkan.

Atas dasar ini pula Marx memilih bergabung dengan koran Rheinische Zeitung, untuk menyebar ide dan gagasannya. Meski pada akhirnya koran Rheinische Zeitung dibredel dan ditutup karena dianggap terlalu kritis, namun pemikiran-pemikiran Marx tetap hidup dan berkembang.

Dalam salah satu adegan pembredelan koran Rheinische Zeitung ini, kalimat berikut meneguhkan betapa pembungkaman itu tidak akan pernah membunuh ide untuk tetap tumbuh. “Mengapa kita bergetar? Mereka bisa membunuh Rheinische Zeitung, mereka dapat membungkam kita, tapi mereka tak dapat membunuh pikiran!”.

Kisah menarik lainnya soal Jenny, istri Marx yang setia mendampinginya dalam situasi apapun. Marx menggambarkan Jenny sebagai aristokrat tercantik di Kota Trier, Jerman. Jenny merupakan keturunan Westphalen, salah satu keluarga tertua dan terpandang di Jerman. Jenny seperti dibuang oleh keluarganya karena memilih jalan hidup bersama Marx. Situasi keuangan yang membelit, rupanya menjadi penyebabnya.

Anak yang sakit-sakitan yang digambarkan dalam film, kian mengkonfirmasi betapa pahit kehidupan mereka. Namun Jenny tidak menyesal memilih hidup bersama Marx. Dalam satu percakapan bersama Engels, Jenny begitu teguh dan yakin dengan pilihannya. “Kau adalah wanita yang luar biasa. Kau mengagumkan. Kau dapat hidup santai dan kaya dengan aristokrat lain, bermandikan harta dan kemewahan”, ujar Engels.

Jenny memberi jawaban yang menohok, “Kebahagiaan membutuhkan pemberontakan. Pemberontakan melawan dunia lama, apa yang sudah ada. Itu yang aku percayai. Dan aku berharap dunia lama akan pecah secepatnya”.

Bagian terpenting dari film ini, tetap saja soal persahabatan Marx dan Engels bermula, yang pada akhirnya melahirkan manifesto komunis yang mengguncang dunia. “Kau tahu. Aku rasa aku memahami sesuatu. Berkat dirimu. Kau membuatku sadar akan satu hal. Dengar. Sampai sekarang para filsuf. Ah, filsuf. Hingga sekarang para filsuf hanya menafsirkan. Menafsirkan dunia. Tetapi dunia harus dirubah”, ujar Marx kepada Engels dalam sebuah adegan.

Dinamika perjuangan Marx dan kawan-kawannya begitu tajam. Bahkan tak jarang berakhir pertengkaran dan perpecahan. Terutama sekali ketika Marx tak henti-hentinya menyatakan bahwa gerakan proletar harus disertai dengan teori. Dan teori inilah yang akan mengubah dunia, mendasari gerakan, dan menghantarkan cita-cita perjuangannya. Sebab tanpa teori, yang ada hanya keinginan semu. Berjuang itu bukan semata-mata dilandasi tujuan, niat dan keinginan akan kebahagiaan rakyat. Bukan pula soal mencari harmoni universal.

Dalam satu pertemuan, Marx berkali-kali menegaskan itu. “Apa dasar teoritis yang membenarkan kegiatanmu, sekarang dan dimasa depan? Anda mengumpulkan pekerja tanpa doktrin konstruktif, adalah kebohongan belaka. Itu seperti nabi di satu sisi, dan orang-orang tolol disisi lainnya. Kebodohan tidak akan menolong siapa pun”, kritik keras Marx kepada Weitling.

“Kritik akan melahap semuanya. Dan ketika tidak ada yang tersisa, dia akan melahap dirinya sendiri”, ujar Weitling. Ini tentu saja ungkapan yang ada benarnya jika dipandang pada satu sisi. Tetapi sisi lainnya mengesankan sikap ketidaksiapan terhadap kritik. Namun yang terbaik tentu saja kritik yang disertai dengan argumentasi ilmiah, dan disertai dengan jalan keluar.

Kritik ini dikuatkan oleh Engels ketika menyampaikan pidato dihadapan kongres league of the just.

“Apa yang mempertemukan kita? Bukan sekedar slogan kebaikan. Karena air mata tidak memberikan kekuatan. Dan kekuatan tidak meneteskan air mata. Para borjuis tidak akan memperlihatkan kebaikan dan kau tidak akan menguasainya dengan kebaikan. Kita dipertemukan untuk berjuang. Apa yang kita perjuangkan? Bukan hanya soal kebebasan, kesamaan ataupun prinsip semua orang bersaudara. Apakah semua orang bersaudara? Tidak. Apakah para borjuis dan pekerja bersaudara? Tidak. Mereka adalah musuh. Kita dipertemukan disini bukan untuk ide-ide abstrak ataupun mimpi-mimpi sentimentil”.

Lebih lanjut Engels menyebutkan bahwa, “Tujuan perjuangan kita sebagaimana disimpulkan oleh Marx dalam bukunya Poverty of Philosophy. Antagonisme antara proletar dan borjuis akan berjung pada revolusi total. Dan selama kelas itu ada, maka pilihannya berjuang atau mati. Revolusi industri menciptakan budak modern. Budak ini adalah kaum proletar. Dengan membebaskannya, maka kita memiliki kebebesan sejati. Dan kebebasan itu memiliki nama : “komunisme”. Pekerja diseluruh negeri bersatulah”.

Pada akhirnya league of the just bertransformasi menjadi communist league, di mana Marx dan Engels menjadi pelopor utamanya. Tetapi tentu saja tanpa menihilkan peran kawan-kawan mereka lainnya.

Yogyakarta, 21 Januari 2017

Herdiansyah Hamzah

Lebih sering dipanggil Castro.

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Herdiansyah Hamzah

Lebih sering dipanggil Castro.

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