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Bunga Krisan dan Devisa Negara

Jika kau ingin bahagia seumur hidupmu, tanamlah bunga krisan“.

Ungkapan dari seorang filsuf cina ini setidaknya menggambarkan betapa sakralnya keberadaan bunga krisan pada masyarakat Asia Timur. Tanaman Hias ini sudah ditanam di Cina sebagai ramuan herbal pada abad ke-15 SM . Krisan dianggap sebagai tanaman spesial dengan kekuatan luar biasa. Sangat luar biasa sehingga hanya kaum bangsawan yang mendapat izin untuk menanamnya di kebun mereka.

Oleh karena itu, bunga krisan dapat ditemukan pada porselen Cina terbaik, dicat dengan gaya asia yang halus. Krisan juga merupakan salah satu dari empat “Junzi”, tanaman favorit penyair berpengaruh Tao Qian yang merupakan simbol keluhuran di Tiongkok.

Pada abad kedelapan, bunga krisan diperkenalkan ke Jepang. Tanaman hias ini bahkan dijadikan sebagai simbol nasional Jepang oleh kaisar dan menjadi simbol yang digunakan pada segel kerajaan. Bunga krisan digambarkan sebagai bunga tunggal dengan enam belas kelopak. Simbol ini dapat ditemukan di banyak tempat termasuk bagian depan paspor Jepang dan koin 50 yen.

Dulu krisan atau seruni identik sebagai tanaman hias yang dihasilkan oleh negara empat musim. Jika musim semi tiba, warna warni krisan menghiasi berbagai negara, misalnya Cina, Jepang, Korea dan Belanda. Indonesia sendiri hanya memiliki varietas lokal yang terbatas tumbuh di daerah sejuk, misalnya di Tomohon (Sulawesi Utara) dan Brastagi (Sumatera Utara),

Namun berkat pengembangan inovasi tekhnologi, varietas krisan unggulan mulai dapat dibudidayakan dan dikembangkan di Indonesia. Selain krisan terdapat pula beberapa varietas tanaman hias unggul lainnya, seperti Krisan, Impatien, Anggrek, Lily, dan Gerbera. Berbagai varietas tersebut telah dibudidayakan untuk pasar domestik dan ekspor ke berbagai negara.

Fakta ini dipaparkan oleh Dirjen Hortikultura Kementerian Pertanian, Suwandi saat melakukan kunjungan ke Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias (BALITHI) Kementerian Pertanian Cipanas dan beberapa lokasi persemaian bibit dan bunga di Kabupaten Jawa Barat, Cianjur, Minggu (2/9/2018).

Menurutnya, saat ini 22 provinsi telah mengembangkan berbagai jenis krisan sebagai sumber pertumbuhan ekonomi daerah.

“Tidak hanya itu, penjualan krisan, utamanya dalam bentuk bibit, makin berkembang. Bunga krisan yang dihasilkan oleh sentra-sentra produksi tahun 2017 sebanyaj 481 juta tangkai naik 11 persen dari 2016. Krisan telah diekspor berbagai negara termasuk ke Jepang,” ujarnya.

Suwandi menambahkan, perdagangan krisan memang strategis jika dilakukan ke negara-negara Asia Timur terutama Jepang dan Tiongkok yang memiliki tradisi kuat dan lekat dengan flora ini.

Sudah diekspor tahun 2017 sebanyak 61 ton, tahu 2018 ini mudah mudahan naik lagi, sehingga menambah devisa. Neraca perdagangan dari krisan kita surplus, jelasnya.

Peluang bisnis inilah yang cerdas ditangkap oleh Indonesia. Momen ini dimulai saat terjadi krisis ekonomi. Saat krisis ekonomi menerpa berbagai negara, serta badai topan di Jepang, ini berbuah manis bagi perkembangan krisan di Indonesia. Sejak 1997-1998, dimulailah kegiatan pemuliaan krisan di tanah air.

Peneliti dan Pemulia Tanaman Hias Balai Penelitian Taman Hias (BALITHI), Kementerian Pertanian, Prof. Budi Marwoto mengatakan, BALITHI memegang peranan penting dalam upaya pemuliaan krisan ini. Upaya keras para pemulia Indonesia untuk menghasilkan lebih dari 100 varietas krisan.

Persilangan dilakukan, lanjutnya, untuk menghasilkan tipe novelty, unik dan tahan hama/penyakit. Sebut saja varietas unggul Krisan Velma, Sintanur, Suciono, Yulimar, Merahayani dan Pasopati telah dilepas dan dikembangkan luas di seluruh sentra produksi di dalam negeri, padahal dulu masih impor 40 jenis krisan dan sekarang dengan teknologi kita memiliki lebih dari 100 jenis krisan.

“Proses pemuliaan ini membutuhkan waktu empat tahun,” jelas Prof. Budi.

Berbagai jenis krisan tersebut, dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, bisa membalik pola tata niaga bunga dari sebelumnya Indonesia tergantung impor, menjadi ekspor. Kini tercatat Indonesia bisa meraup PDB hampir satu triliun rupiah pertahun dari hasil pengembangan krisan.

“Neraca perdagangan krisan kita sekarang sudah surplus, ini salah satu sumber devisa dan mensejahterakan petani,” beber dia.

“Ini peluang investasi dan bisnis yang tetap eksis dan semakin berkembang ke depan,” imbuhnya.

Salah satu eksportir krisan adalah PT Transplants Indonesia, yang berada di Cugenang, Cianjur, Jawa Barat. Perusahaan ini menjalin kerjasama permodalan dengan salah satu koperasi di Okinawa Jepang dalam usaha ekspor bibit krisan.

Perwakilan koperasi Jepang di perusahaan tersebut, Miyazato, menjelaskan bahwa setiap tahun antara 12-13 juta bibit krisan diekspor ke Jepang dan pasar krisan ke negara-negara Asia Timur.

“Pasar bunga Krisan di Asia Timur utamanya, Jepang, tidak akan pernah jenuh mengingat bunga ini sudah merupakan bunga simbol dan budaya di sana,” jelasnya.

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