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Politik Akomodasi Jokowian: Gizi Buruk Bagi Demokrasi

Ilustrasi: Luki Ahmadi Hari Wardoyo

Lini masa media sosial heboh oleh karena pilihan cawapres yang akan mendampingi Jokowi dan Prabowo pada demokrasi elektoral 2019 yang akan datang. Dua kubu sama-sama melahirkan drama politik yang membuat banyak orang menggelengkan kepala.

Pembatalan Mahfud MD sebagai cawapres Jokowi di menit-menit akhir menjadi kejutan besar. Begitu pula penobatan Sandiaga Uno alih-alih Agus Harimurti Yudhoyono turut menarik perhatian besar publik.

Namun, pihak yang paling mendapatkan sorotan tajam justru ialah kelompok Jokowi. Keputusan untuk menunjuk Ma’ruf Amin daripada Mahfud MD membuat banyak pihak bertanya-tanya.

Banyak orang kaget bahwa ketua MUI yang memiliki peran sentral dalam manuver-manuver GNPF-MUI selama masa Pilkada DKI 2017 sebagai kubu anti Ahok dan pemerintah justru sekarang menjadi pendamping Jokowi untuk Pilpres 2019 yang akan datang.

Tak mengherankan setelah pengumuman nama-nama bakal calon presiden dan wakil presiden pada Kamis 9/8/2018 malam, muncul berbagai tanggapan pro-kontra terhadap sosok cawapres Jokowi.

Akan tetapi, hal mendasar yang seharusnya diperhatikan oleh masyarakat warga bukan sekadar soal rasa kecewa atas penunjukan Ma’ruf Amin yang harus dipilih setelah ditetapkan sepihak oleh elit partai bersama Jokowi untuk pilpres tahun depan. Melainkan, kepada dampak apa yang politik akomodasi Jokowi hadirkan terhadap kelangsungan demokrasi yang sehat dan kuat di Indonesia.

Politik Akomodasi

Banyak dari warga awam yang tidak mencermati bahwa masuknya Ma’ruf Amin ke lingkungan kekuasaan Istana sudah dimulai sejak tahun 2017. Pasca menyatakan rasa tidak senang, lewat mulut Luhut Binsar Panjaitan, terhadap sikap Ahok yang menyudutkan Ma’ruf Amin di sidang, Jokowi mulai memperlihatkan gestur yang akomodatif terhadap sang Rais Aam PBNU. Babakan mendekatnya Jokowi ke Ma’ruf Amin dirangkum dengan cukup baik oleh Kumparan.

Pada tanggal 30/3/2017, jelang aksi 313, Jokowi mengundang Ma’ruf Amin ke Istana dan mereka membicarakan isu politik yang paling penting yaitu soal masalah kebangsaan dan ekonomi umat Islam. Selesai pertemuan, Ma’ruf Amin tampil ke muka publik dan melontarkan seruan bahwa aksi 313 tidak diperlukan sembari menegaskan bahwa Jokowi berkomitmen mendukung gagasan “Arus Baru Ekonomi Indonesia” yang akan menguntungkan umat Islam.

Setelah pertemuan di bulan Maret 2017, hubungan ke dua orang ini kian dekat. Ma’ruf Amin bersama ulama-ulama pimpinan Ormas Islam besar bertemu lagi dengan Presiden pada 17/4/2017. Selanjutnya, pada 24/5/2017 giliran Jokowi yang terbang ke Malang untuk menghadiri pengukuhan Guru Besar Ma’ruf Amin di UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim.

Di Festival Sholawat Nusantara Piala Presiden, 24/2/2018, Ma’ruf Amin menggandeng tangan Jokowi ketika memasuki lokasi acara. Bahkan, empat hari berselang setelah Festival Sholawat, Ma’ruf Amin berani mengajukan permintaan kepada Jokowi untuk memberikan grasi kepada Abu Bakar Ba’asyir supaya napi teroris kelas kakap itu dapat dirawat di rumah sakit.

Kejadian-kejadian di atas merupakan tanda bahwa Ma’ruf Amin semakin mendapatkan ruang di dalam lingkaran kekuasaan Jokowi.

Semakin mesranya hubungan Jokowi dengan Ma’ruf Amin merupakan simbol politik yang penting sebab kader PDIP ini dituduh sebagai Presiden yang anti-Islam. Tudingan politis semacam itu merupakan ladang basah bagi oposisi. Maka, penting bagi Jokowi untuk melakukan politik akomodasi terhadap para elit Islam seperti Ma’ruf Amin sebelum oposisi berhasil melakukan okupasi total terhadap ladang basah tersebut.

Posisi Ma’ruf Amin memang sangat strategis secara sosio-religius. Selain menjadi orang yang dituakan dan masuk jajaran elit di NU, Ma’ruf Amin juga merupakan pimpinan di MUI, lembaga yang selama ini dijadikan mantel politik oleh GNPF untuk bermanuver.

Sepanjang kisruh Ahok dan Pilkada DKI 2017, sosok Ma’ruf Amin menjadi titik penyatu antara kelompok Islam arus utama dan kelompok sempalan seperti HTI dan FPI. Menyatunya kelompok Islam tersebut yang kemudian melahirkan kubu populis Islam Konservatif.

Dengan mendekati Ma’ruf Amin yang memiliki posisi strategis, Jokowi dapat memotong apa yang disebut Ernesto Laclau sebagai “rantai kebersamaan” (the chain of equivalence) di antara kelompok populis Islam-Konservatif.

Politik akomodasi Jokowian merupakan cara halus untuk melindungi diri sambil merakul umat Islam yang merasa diri dilukai rezim. Hal ini dipicu oleh keberhasilan berbagai retorika politik kubu oposisi yang membingkai Jokowi sebagai pemimpin anti-Islam.

Fenomena naiknya suara PKS dan Gerindra pada Pilkada 2018 di Jabar dan Jateng yang mematahkan hasil survei merupakan efek keberhasilan retorika politik tersebut. Tentu fakta politik ini menjadi lampu kuning bagi Jokowi dan koalisinya.

Mendekati masa pilpres, dengungan isu Jokowi anti-Islam dan asosiasinya dengan kampanye #2019GantiPresiden tidak juga surut. Situasi ini memaksa politik akomodasi Jokowi bergerak jauh dari pemberian janji untuk memerhatikan ekonomi umat Islam menuju ke pemberian posisi cawapres kepada kelompok Islam.

Posisi cawapres dari kelompok Islam diharapkan dapat meredam isu Jokowi anti-Islam. Sampai beberapa menit sebelum deklarasi, nama Mahfud MD sudah tersebar di jagat media sosial sebagai cawapres pilihan Jokowi yang dapat memenangkan hati umat Islam sekaligus kelompok progresif.

Akan tetapi, di hadapan publik Jokowi justru mengumumkan nama Ma’ruf Amin.  Melalui konferensi pers, Ma’ruf Amin mengakui dirinya dihubungi oleh Setneg Jokowi sebagai bakal calon wapres alternatif. Berarti, sejak awal memang kubu Jokowi menyiapkan setidaknya baik Mahfud MD maupun Ma’ruf Amin.

Namun pengakuan Ma’ruf Amin menunjukan bahwa Jokowi cenderung tidak mengajukan sang Rais Aam PBNU sebagai calon utama dan pilihan pertama. Pertanyaannya, mengapa baru pada menit-menit terakhir angin berubah arah ke Ma’ruf Amin setelah sebelumnya Mahfud MD sudah hampir pasti menjadi sosok yang akan dideklarasikan?

Nama Mahfud MD sebagai cawapres mungkin tidak begitu diterima oleh sekelompok orang di NU dan terutama PKB. Sepertinya terjadi friksi di internal NU terhadap wacana pencalonan Mahfud MD.

Debat tentang status “kader NU tulen” yang menerpa Mahfud MD sehari sebelum deklarasi bahkan sempat menarik keluar beberapa tokoh NU hingga menimbulkan silang pendapat. Tokoh NU yang paling senior dan sangat dihormati KH Maimun Zubair sampai ikut menegaskan status “tulen” Mahfud MD setelah sebelumnya Saiq Aqil Siradj menyebut bahwa mantan ketua MK itu belum pernah menjadi kader NU.

Pembelahan di dalam NU yang disebabkan oleh Jokowi yang mau nyari cawapres tentu merupakan friksi politik yang akan sangat merugikan Jokowi bila tidak segera diredam.

Dengan demikian, dapat dimengerti mengapa Jokowi perlu untuk membebat luka umat Islam dan meredam friksi di internal NU dengan semiotik politis yang akomodatif terhadap Islam melalui sosok Ma’ruf Amin. Sikap legawa Mahfud MD dan sambutan gembira Saiq Aqil Siradj bersama Ma’ruf Amin sesaat setelah pengumuman Jokowi di Plantarang Menteng, Jakarta Pusat, seolah-olah membuka lembaran baru antara Jokowi dan umat Islam dalam menyambut Pilpres 2019.

Gizi Buruk bagi Demokrasi

Di dalam demokrasi yang sehat, pluralitas preferensi politik mesti dibiarkan hadir. Filsuf Amerika Michael Walzer menyebut bahwa ada lima preferensi politik, yaitu: Republikanisme, Marxisme, Neo-liberalime, Nasionalisme & Agama, serta Masyarakat Warga. Dari kelima preferesensi itu hanya Masyarakat Warga yang menyehatkan demokrasi karena di dalamnya seluruh preferensi mengalami proses moderasi sudut pandang sehingga tidak menjadi hegemonik, absolut, dan tertutup.

Namun, menurut F. Budi Hardiman, kondisi di Indonesia memperlihatkan bahwa preferensi Masyarakat warganya mati dilindas habis kekuatan uang dan pasar (neoliberalisme), serta preferensi nasionalisme dan agama yang belakangan menguat dalam bentuk populisme hiper-nasionalis dan Islam-Konservatif (seperti yang dikemukakan oleh Vedy R. Hadiz). Akibatnya, sulit mengharapkan adanya moderasi sudut pandang politik bila bukan kontestasi antagonis di antara preferensi-preferensi yang ada.

Lebih dari itu, hal yang patut dicemaskan ialah politik akomodasi Jokowi alih-alih menghambat tumbuh kembang populisme Islam Konservatif di Indonesia, justru secara pragmatis memberikan legitimasi terhadap politik mayoritarianisme pada satu sisi sambil tetap memelihara populisme hiper-nasionalis di sisi lain.

Sikap politik akomodasi yang ingin secara rakus memelihara ke kedua populisme baik hiper-nasionalis maupun Islam-Konservatif tentu bukan bentuk dari penguatan preferensi politik masyarakat warga. Pasalnya, tabiat utama dua preferensi yang saling bertentangan itu coba disatukan bukan oleh moderasi yang terjadi melalui masyarakat warga tetapi oleh transaksi kekuasaan a la kartel di antara para elit (Oligark).

Masyarakat warga di dalam konteks kontestasi politik akomodasi Jokowian diperlakukan sebagai agen sosial yang pasif. Mereka tidak didorong untuk mengatasi dan memperbaiki ruang publik yang sudah dikoyak habis oleh dua gerakan populis di atas. Mereka juga tidak dimintai pandangan dan pertimbangan rasional-objektif tentang sosok kandidat yang layak menjadi calon pemimpin yang akan mereka pilih.

Sayangnya, masyarakat warga hanya disuruh menonton sandiwara politik para oligark yang dipentaskan seperti dalam drama penetapan cawapres. Selesai menonton drama tersebut, masyarakat warga tanpa dapat menolak telah disodori dua pasang calon yang harus mereka pilih suka atau tidak. Calon yang ditetapkan oleh para Oligark dengan kalkulasi elitis tapi menggunakan topeng retorika populis.

Mengondisikan masyarakat warga menjadi pihak yang aktif membela kelompok sendiri (social reference- nya) tapi sambil tetap pasif terhadap prinsip, nilai, dan keutamaan demokrasi seperti kesetaraan, kebebasan, dan solidaritas warga merupakan bahaya besar.

Dalam kondisi yang pasif tersebut, masyarakat warga hanya diperlukan sebagai pemberi legitimasi melalui suara (voter) saat pemilu nanti. Masyarakat warga, akibatnya, bukan lagi sebagai subjek aktif pemilik sesungguhnya kedaulatan rakyat.

Harga mahal yang harus dibayar seperti dipaparkan di atas justru lahir dari sikap politik akomodasi yang mematikan masyarakat warga namun memelihara secara terpisah preferensi politik nasionalisme dan politik agama, di samping neoliberalisme.

Keterjebakan Jokowi yang harus melakukan politik akomodasi agar diterima dan didukung oleh Oligark di sekitarnya tidak akan membantu menopang sebuah sistem demokrasi melalui masyarakat warga yang baik. Hal ini disebabkan oleh karena polarisasi sosial yang memaksa politik antagonis dalam oposisi biner: Nasionalis vs. Islam Konservatif, Warga Keturunan vs. Pribumi, Mayoritas vs. Minoritas tidak dilampui.

Pemikiran kelompok Jokowi untuk mengharmonisasikan kelompok populis Hiper-nasionalis  dan Islam Konservatif di luar peran aktif masyarakat warga justru gagal mengatasi sifat antagonis keduanya. Hasilnya, politik akodomasi sebagai jalan tengah untuk mengupayakan harmonisasi di atas justru semakin menguatkan penerimaan terhadap binari-binari sosial yang tidak menyehatkan serta menumbuhkan demokrasi.

Dengan demikian, saya meragukan bahwa episode demokrasi elektoral yang ke-empat yang akan segera dimulai hingga tahun 2019 nanti benar-benar menjadi momentum untuk memperbaiki gizi buruk demokrasi kita.

 

 

Albert Josua Putera Maliogha

Pembelajar Teologi di School of Theology, Boston University. Meminati Studi Agama dan Transformasi Konflik, serta Filsafat Politik.

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Tentang Penulis

Albert Josua Putera Maliogha

Pembelajar Teologi di School of Theology, Boston University. Meminati Studi Agama dan Transformasi Konflik, serta Filsafat Politik.

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