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Saat La Nyalla Menyala

AKSI marah-marah La Nyalla dalam jumpa pers kemarin tampak heroik, sekaligus menggelikan. Sudah tahu bahwa medan politik itu ibarat dicemplungkan dalam “kebun binatang”, kok tiba-tiba marah dan merasa kecele? Sudah tahu kalau semua kandidat akan dimintai uang banyak, kok malah mempersoalkan mekanisme pembayaran di depan? Kalau merasa siap, bayar. Kalau tak siap, kabur. Take it or leave it!

Tapi, “nyanyian” La Nyalla telah menyalakan banyak hal dalam dunia politik kita. Sesuatu yang tadinya tertutup dan dilakukan dengan bisik-bisik, kini menjadi terang. Selama ini, yang kita saksikan hanya permukaan saja. Kita melihat ada baliho, poster wajah yang tersenyum, visi kemajuan daerah, juga berbagai promosi kebaikan dan kehebatan satu tokoh.

Padahal, dunia politik kita penuh lorong-lorong gelap yang selama ini luput dari pantauan kita. Di lorong itu, ada tawar-menawar, negosiasi, bargaining, saling ancam, hingga saling serang. Di wilayah gelap itu, para politisi saling kunci, saling tikam, dan saling ancam ketika pihak lain berseberangan dengannya. Ada dua hal yang dinyalakan oleh La Nyalla.

Pertama, mantan Ketua Umum PSSI itu menyalakan apa yang selama ini terjadi dalam partai politik yang berlindung di balik jargon pemihakan pada rakyat, juga selalu membela nasib umat. Tanya saja pada kandidat bupati yang gagal mendapatkan rekomendasi, berapa biaya mahar yang diminta. (BACA: Saling Sikut demi Rekomendasi Partai)

Kita bisa mengatakan bahwa semua partai setali tiga uang. Semua perilakunya sama. Yang namanya gerakan partai akan selalu butuh uang. Tak ada makan siang gratis, termasuk bagi mereka yang memperjuangkan rakyat. Pertanyaannya, kenapa La Nyalla harus ribut sekarang? Kenapa gak dari dulu?

Kedua, La Nyalla juga mengungkap hubungan antara politisi dengan gerakan-gerakan yang selalu mengatasnamakan umat. Saat jumpa pers yang isinya marah-marah itu, ia didampingi Al Khaththath alias Gatot, politisi yang gagal saat jadi caleg, lalu mengklaim diri sebagai representasi aksi 212. Jika pengakuan Al Khaththath benar, gerakan yang diklaim sebagai gerakan moral itu adalah gerakan yang terus bertransformasi.

Gerakan itu bukannya usai ketika sasarannya jadi tersangka dan dipenjara. Beberapa orang lalu mengatasnamakan ulama. Mereka bermaksud menjaga spirit gerakan lalu mendorong sejumlah kandidat kepala daerah.

Massa tujuh juta orang diklaim sebagai massa loyal dan fanatik. Spiritnya harus menyebar ke daerah. Semangatnya politik elektoral. Sampai-sampai hendak mengajukan calon kepala daerah. Mengapa tak sekalian jadi partai politik biar tujuh juta umat itu terlembagakan?

Seumur-umur, saya baru tahu kalau La Nyalla adalah pendukung aksi 212. Saya tak pernah baca berita atau informasi yang menyebutkan bagaimana dirinya ikut merancang aksi yang konon dihadiri sampai tujuh juta orang. Saya malah baru tahu kalau dia identik dengan aksi itu, serta dekat dengan ormas-ormas pengusung aksi. Mungkin saja, uangnya juga mengalir untuk aksi tersebut.

Yang menarik buat saya adalah bagaimana perselingkuhan antara simbol religi dengan ambisi kuasa, yang lalu dikemas dalam simbol-simbol keberpihakan pada umat. Politik itu dikemas sebagai jalan pengabdian kepada Tuhan, padahal proses di dunia ini tak selalu seindah apa yang tersaji di layar kaca.

Marilah kita belajar dari pernyataan La Nyalla, pengusaha keturunan Bugis Makassar di Surabaya ini. Mulanya, dia sumringah karena akan didukung partai berlambang garuda itu untuk memasuki arena pilkada. Senyumnya mekar saat menerima selembar surat rekomendasi. Pada dasarnya ia seorang petarung yang tajir. Dalam jumpa persnya, ia mengaku sudah menyiapkan uang sampai ratusan miliar.

Ia mulai tampil di banyak media. Citra dirinya dikemas sebagai sosok yang telah bertobat. Masa lalunya yang dekat dengan dunia malam, juga dibahas media, tetapi penekanannya pada kekelaman yang kemudian hijrah ke jalan Tuhan. Dia disebut-sebut telah kembali ke “jalan kebaikan.”

Beberapa portal online menulis kebaikannya. Deliknews mulai menulis kebaikan-kebaikan La Nyalla. Sisi spiritualnya ditonjolkan. Kita simak catatan dalam media itu tentang sosoknya sebagaimana bisa dibaca DI SINI.

“La Nyalla selalu yakin dan optimis, bahwa apa yang diperjuangkan dengan sungguh-sungguh pasti ada jalan. Sesulit apapun itu. Keyakinan La Nyalla itu disandarkan pada keyakinan spiritual dia pribadi. Keyakinan spiritual La Nyalla itu tidak lepas dari perilaku keagamaan pribadi La Nyalla yang tidak banyak diketahui orang. Lelaki yang lahir 10 Mei 1959 itu, begitu menginjak usia 40 tahun, La Nyalla istiqomah menjalankan Puasa Daud dan Tahajud. La Nyalla muda memang pernah akrab dengan dunia malam, tetapi setelah usia 40 tahun, dia memilih membina dan mengajak teman-temannya yang berkecimpung di dunia malam untuk kembali ke jalan kebaikan.”

Sejak saat itu, La Nyalla membuat Yayasan La Nyalla Academia, dengan slogan yang berbunyi; Bersama Untuk Kebaikan. La Nyalla memegang teguh janji Allah di Alquran, bahwa semua orang merugi, kecuali mereka yang beriman dan berbuat kebajikan di muka bumi. Kini, La Nyalla berikhtiar untuk berbuat kebajikan dalam skala yang lebih luas lagi melalui sarana kekuasaan dengan mencalonkan diri sebagai Gubernur Jawa Timur. Bagi La Nyalla, kekuasaan hanyalah alat. Hanyalah sarana untuk memperluas ladang amalan kita sebagai manusia. Sebagai khalifah di muka bumi.”

Ketika kasus ini mencuat, sebagai publik, kita bertanya-tanya. Apakah mungkin seseorang yang katanya menjalankan puasa Daud dan rajin salat tahajjud, bersedia menghabiskan uang yang lalu menjadi pelicin demi kursi kekuasaan?

Apakah mungkin seseorang yang telah tobat pada dunia malam lalu memilih jalan Tuhan bersedia menyetor dana awal hingga miliaran sebagaimana diakuinya?

Pernyataan pers La Nyalla ibarat pengakuan dosa dari seseorang yang sebelumnya terlanjur dicitrakan berada di jalan kebaikan. Pada akhirnya, dunia politik kita bukanlah dunia yang hitam putih di mana politisinya adalah para malaikat yang tampil sebagai pahlawan bagi publik. Dunia ini juga dipenuhi orang-orang yang dicitrakan seperti malaikat, tapi juga menempuh jalan yang jauh berseberangan dengan nilai-nilai ideal.

Dalam diri La Nyalla, kita sedang melihat wajah bangsa. Di satu sisi kita melihat bagaimana mimpi-mimpi untuk menyejahterakan masyarakat, tapi di sisi lain kita juga melihat para politisi hendak menempuh jalan pintas demi memenangkan kontestasi politik.

Praktik politik uang kerap dianggap sebagai praktik politik yang wajar, bahkan saking wajarnya dilakukan juga oleh mereka yang selalu tampil dengan gelar religius.

Mungkin saja La Nyalla berbohong. Apalagi banyak kepala daerah yang membantahnya. Untuk membuktikannya mudah saja. Jangan tanya pada kepala daerah yang berhasil terpilih. Sebab demi pencitraan, mereka akan menolak mengakuinya. Tanyalah pada mereka yang gagal mendapatkan rekomendasi. Pasti akan terselip banyak kisah tentang perburuan selembar rekomendasi yang penuh suka dan duka. Pada cerita itu, kita bisa bercermin.

Jika Anda seorang yang berhati malaikat, janganlah memasuki dunia politik. Politik uang tidak hanya terjadi saat pemberian mahar, tapi juga terjadi saat berhadapan dengan calon pemilih. Yang dialami La Nyalla hanyalah satu dari banyaknya kenyataan di mana praktik politik uang terjadi. Dia mengaku sebagai korban, padahal dia juga pelaku. Ini hanya soal mekanisme pembayaran dana. Partai ingin bayar di depan, La Nyalla ingin di belakang ketika rekomendasi telah keluar untuknya.

***

SAYA teringat tulisan Aspinall & Sukmajati (2015) mengidentifikasi beberapa pola yang digunakan politisi untuk mengikat publik agar memilihnya di ajang pilkada. Pola ini menjadi arus utama yang dilakukan politisi di berbagai wilayah.

Pertama, pembelian suara (vote buying). Biasanya, praktik pembelian suara ini dilakukan seorang politisi kepada konstituen. Tim sukses sebelumnya melakukan pendataan terhadap para pemilih, lalu menentukan siapa saja yang akan diberikan uang demi suara. Di tanah air, istilah untuk menyebutnya bisa bermacam-macam, namun yang kerap terdengar adalah istilah “serangan fajar” untuk menamakan pemberian ang saat pagi hari, jelang pemilih ke lokasi pencoblosan.

Kedua, pemberian pribadi (individual gifts). Biasanya, pemberian pribadi ini meliputi pemberian beberapa barang seperti arloji, kalender, sembako, rokok, gula, kopi, mie instan, peralatan pertanian. Bisa pula beberapa benda yang memiliki makna religius, misalnya jilbab, mukena, peci, sajadah, tasbih, ataupun air zam-zam.

Politisi memberikan benda-benda ini saat hendak berkunjung ke rumah konstituennya. Label yang seirng dikemukakan adalah sebagai kenang-kenangan, serta bisa digunakan di saat genting. Pemberian ini digunakan sebagai perekat hubungan sosial (social lubricant)

Ketiga, pelayanan dan aktivitas (services and activities). Selain pemberian tunai, seorang kandidat juga bisa menggelar beragam kegiatan yang mempertemukan politisi dan konstituen. Pertemuan itu biasanya diiringi iming-iming pemberian hadiah tertentu, misalnya pertandingan domino, lomba balap karung, turnamen sepakbola, ataupun lomba menyanyi bersama.

Biasanya, acara-acara sejenis akan melibatkan banyak orang serta adanya sejumlah kuis-kuis yang isinya adalah bagaimana mengenalkan seorang politisi kepada masyarakat awam.

Keempat, barang-barang kelompok (club goods). Biasanya barang-barang ini diberikan untuk mengikat persaudaraan kelompok. Misalnya pemberian bantuan untuk masjid, pemberian atribut untuk barisan pendukung, hingga penyediaan sarana kesehatan untuk kelompok pendukung.

Seorang kandidat juga membentuk kelompok-kelompok kecil yang nantinya menjadi kekuatan untuk mempromosikan dirinya. Kelompok ini lalu difasilitasi dan diberikan atribut, serta adanya imbalan berupa gaji tertentu. Biasanya, pemberian pada kelompok ini dimediasi oleh seorang  tokoh masyarakat, yang kerap berperan sebagai broker politik.

Kelima, proyek-proyek pembangunan (pork barrel projects). Seorang kandidat seringkali menjanjikan proyek-proyek pembangunan di daerah-daerah tertentu. Proyek ini biasanya melibatkan lobi-lobi, jaringan, serta kongkalikong antara seorang kandidat dengan sejumlah instansi terkait. Pemberian proyek ini biasanya diikuti dengan penyerapan tenaga kerja di lokasi tersebut, yang diharapkan agar semakin memperkuat branding atau nama baik dari seorang kandidat.

***

NAH, jika anda seorang yang berhati malaikat, apakah Anda yakin bahwa Anda tidak melakukan satu dari lima praktik politik uang sebagaimana di catat Aspinall di atas?  Beranikah Anda mengambil risiko tidak populer saat menolak segala bentuk praktik politik uang dan terancam kalah telak oleh mereka yang mendekati publik dengan strategi pencitraan serta jalan pintas?

Marilah kita mencari jawabannya dalam setiap tutur pemimpin kita.

 

Yusran Darmawan

peneliti, pejalan, dan penggemar kuliner

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