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Perselingkuhan Tua Bisnis dan Politik

Ilustrasi: Luki Ahmadi Hari Wardoyo

Awalnya di kota Florence, sebuah kota modern pertama di Jazirah Italia. Kota ini berkembang akibat meramainya kembali perdagangan Timur dan Barat saat Perang Salib berkecamuk. Hingga lambat laun, kota ini berkembang menjadi negara kota (polis). Para penguasa tertinggi kota itu berasal dari keluarga-keluarga aristokrat. Yang kemudian mengalami peningkatan status sosial akibat kecipratan rezeki hasil perdagangan dan perniagaan.

Dari sini, kota yang mulanya banyak berisi bangunan gereja, biara dan katedral sebagai pusat kekuasaan, kemudian digubah menjadi pusat-pusat perdagangan, toko-toko, pasar  dan  bank-bank yang mulai nampak menjulang tinggi ke langit. Politik kota Florence saat itu mulai dikuasai oleh beberapa keluarga aristokrat yang kaya, yang kemudian berevolusi menjadi pemilik bank dan para pemilik modal. Dari keluarga-keluarga inilah kemudian mulai timbul minat terhadap kesadaran nasional dan kesadaran tentang apa artinya warga negara. Yang semuanya adalah awal dari apa yang banyak orang katakan dengan istilah gerakan Renaissance, dengan spirit antroposentrisme.

Gerakan nasionalisme pun mulai bangkit bermunculan, yang perlahan namun pasti merongrong iman dan moral Kristiani. Dan ketika terbentuk negara-negara nasional di Italia, “negara kepausan” mulai kehilangan legitimasi. Perlahan-lahan Gereja Katolik kehilangan otoritasnya yang absolut. Gereja beserta nilai-nilai yang digenggamnya dianggap tak lagi mampu memberi makna baru akan datangnya zaman baru, sebuah zaman ketika kehidupan manusia sudah tak lagi berbicara soal kebahagiaan di alam baka.

Panggung kekuasaan pun menjadi “ladang perebutan” diantara mereka; keluarga-keluarga kaya. Keluarga Medici adalah salah satu kelompok keluarga aristokrat kaya, yang mencoba bermain di air keruh. Dengan bekal setumpuk modal uang, ia berhasil memanaskan kesadaran rakyat kecil. Ia berhasil memanipulasi keadaan rakyat jelata, yang sebenarnya tak diminati oleh sebagian besar dari mereka. Namun dihadapan lawan politiknya, ia berusaha membuktikan diri seolah-olah tak terlibat dalam kegiatan pemilu dan seolah tak mempengaruhi lembaga-lembaga politik yang ada. Hingga dalam suatu pemilihan umum, rakyat kecil mendukung Cosimo de’ Medici sebagai penguasa baru di kota Florence.

Sejak saat itu, panggung kekuasaan mulai bergeser dengan cepat dari tangan keluarga aristokrat yang satu ke tangan keluarga aristokrat yang lain. Runtuhnya kekuasaan keluarga Medici, tak lama disusul dengan naiknya tahta kekuasaan keluarga Savoranola, yang juga salah satu keluarga aristokrat kaya Italia. Panggung kekuasaan politik benar-benar menjadi “wahana” pertarungan di antara mereka keluarga-keluarga kaya. Republik kota Florence waktu itu sebenarnya hanya sebuah  pemerintahan yang menjadi “medium” pertarungan diantara kelurga-keluarga elite yang kaya dan memiliki privelese-privelese. Yang dalam bahasa Jeffrey Winter yakni sebuah pemerintahan yang berisi “Oligarki penguasa kolektif”. Dimana orang-orang kaya ini berkuasa secara kolektif melalui lembaga yang memiliki norma atau aturan main tertentu, untuk mempertahankan kekayaannya dan memerintah suatu komunitas masyarakat.

Berbeda dari Italia. Di Indonesia, kita dapat menyaksikan hubungan intim antara kekuasaan dan kekayaan berkembang subur di era ketika Orde Baru berkuasa. Di bawah kekuasaan tunggal Soeharto, grup-grup bisnis mulai tumbuh subur, memperkaya diri mereka melalui berbagai proyek dan kegiatan perekonomian yang dijalankan oleh pemerintah. Merekalah sebuah konglomerasi yang tumbuh dalam waktu singkat. Sebuah kelas borjuasi yang menggantungkan hidup dari rent-seeking. Menjadi pengusaha dan konglomerat karena bergandeng mesra dengan rezim, menjalin hubungan mesra dengan penguasa untuk memperoleh konsesi dan lisensi.

Para grup-grup bisnis ini membangun hubungan patron-klien dengan penguasa politik dan pejabat publik, untuk melindungi dan memperluas kepentingan bisnis mereka. Dan grup-grup bisnis inilah yang sejak Soeharto naik tahta, menjadi penyokong utama jalannya rezim Orde Baru. Hingga akhirnya mereka menjadi kekuatan politik tersendiri, yang menjadikan kekuasaan hanya sebatas medium mereka bertempur untuk memperoleh akses kekuasaan guna memperluas kepentingan bisnis mereka.

Semuanya secara masif berpuncak pada masa Orde Baru yang tidak saja membuka kemungkinan bagi orang kaya akan tetapi negara itu sendiri menjadi hartawan, dan hanya hartawan yang bisa mengontrol laku para pejabat. Keduanya menjadi semacam siklus yang hanya berputar-putar antara; hartawan dan penguasa, penguasa yang menjadi hartawan.

Nama tua, setua para filsuf Yunani kuno, menyebutnya sebagai plutokrasi yang kini lebih populer sebagai oligarki. Alih-alih membawa perubahan, demokrasi elektoral hasil reformasi justru memperkuat siklus hartawan menjadi penguasa: politik untuk menjadi hartawan, dan berharta demi kekuasaan politik

Dan ketika para saudagar ikut berpolitik, kekuasaan pun menjadi despotik. Dimana suap, perilaku koruptif dan money politic menjadi kebiasaan dalam kehidupan politik. Dan ketika para saudagar ikut berpolitik, pemilihan umum hanya menjadi panggung pertempuran diantara kelompok bisnis. Partai politik dan Lembaga Perwakilan Rakyat tak lebih hanya menjadi “broker” diantara jejaring grup bisnis. Birokrasi pun menjadi medan “sapi perah” untuk menjarah kekayaan negara. Presiden pun hanya menjadi patron pengusaha. Dan kebijakan negara akhirnya hanya menguntungkan segelintir orang saja.

Dan ketika saudagar ikut berpolitik, politik hanya sebatas “kalkulasi kepentingan”. Kerakusan dalam politik justru dirayakan. Proses politik jadi semacam jual-beli. Dan yang mencemaskan kita semua, ketika kedudukan diperoleh lewat jual-beli akhirnya akan merusak ruang hidup bersama. Dan ruang bersama itu pun akan sirna. Di telan oleh nafsu para pembesar.

Arjuna Putra Aldino

Mahasiswa Pascasarjana, Sekolah Kajian Stratejik dan Global, Universitas Indonesia

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Tentang Penulis

Arjuna Putra Aldino

Mahasiswa Pascasarjana, Sekolah Kajian Stratejik dan Global, Universitas Indonesia

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