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Menakar Kembali Toleransi Beragama

Ilustrasi (Sumber: waktunews.com)

KEBERADAAN agama menjadi posisi penting bagi setiap warga negara, karena sebagai sistem keyakinan, agama memiliki makna ketika dihayati oleh pemeluknya dengan ajaran, norma, institusi, ritus, simbol dan para pemukanya.

Akan tetapi, hak kebebasan beragama dalam bentuk kebebasan untuk mewujudkan atau memanifestasikan agama, seperti tindakan menyebarkan agama dan mendirikan tempat ibadah diperbolehkan untuk dibatasi dan diatur oleh pemerintah melalui kebijakan jaminan perlindungan bagi umat beragama untuk memeluk agama dan menjalankan agama sesuai keyakinan yang dipeluknya.

Hak kebebasan beragama sendiri merupakan hak asasi dasar manusia yang bersifat mutlak. Hak ini harus dilaksanakan dan dihormati oleh negara dan tidak bisa ditangguhkan pemenuhannya dalam situasi dan kondisi apa pun meskipun dalam keadaan bahaya.

Hak ini pun tidak bisa hanya dipahami dalam sudut pandang HAM semata, meskipun keyakinan terhadap suatu agama merupakan hal yang paling privat dimiliki oleh warga negara, akan tetapi ekspresi sebuah keyakinan di dalam ruang publik menjadi domain negara untuk mengatur demi terciptanya harmonisasi dalam kehidupan beragama.

Semboyan ”Bhinneka Tunggal Ika” memberikan peluang bagi beragam agama untuk mengikuti dan melaksanakan ajaran agama sesuai dengan dasar negara Pancasila dan UUD 1945. Makna Bhinneka Tunggal Ika merupakan dasar diraihnya kemerdekaan Indonesia karena berada dalam satu kepentingan yang sama untuk merdeka dan bebas dari penjajahan.

Namun saat ini, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika seakan hanya tinggal nama, disebabkan masyarakat bergeser menjadi individualis, ruh ke-Bhinnekaan Tunggal Ika telah ditanggalkan diambil alih oleh ego eksklusif bernama agama, suku dan budaya.

Maraknya kekerasan atas nama agama dan diskriminasi terhadap umat beragama menjadi suguhan yang sering disaksikan di media. Sebagian beranggapan bahwa agama seakan berwajah ganda, di satu sisi agama dapat saja menjdi inspirasi peradaban namun di sisi lain agama menampakkan wajahnya sebagai faktor pemecah belah manusia, dengan melahirkan ketegangan bahkan konflik antar pemeluk agama.

Sebagai bangsa yang majemuk dengan entitas yang beragam di dalamnya, keragaman agama Indonesia masih kerap diwarnai potensi konflik atas nama agama. Kasus kekerasan yang dialami KH. Umar Basri pimpinan pondok pesantren Al-Hidayah Santiong Bandung dan Komandan Brigade Persatuan Islam (Persis) Ustadz Prawoto yang dianiaya hingga meregang nyawa.

Baru-baru ini, terdapat serangan Gereja Santa Lidwina Sleman di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, dan Pengusiran Biksu Mulyanto Nurhalim di desanya sendiri di Tangerang adalah sekelumit peristiwa tragis produk dari kegagalan menjalankan tolerasi di negara ini.

Belum lagi penggunaan isu agama dalam mewujudkan strategi politik, ekonomi, sosial dan lainnya. Memperalat agama untuk alat dan tujuan politik kekuasaan, dan pada akhirnya menimbulkan perpecahan, menggadaikan toleransi keberagamaan dan menyebarkan kultur kebencian di masyarakat.

Padahal dalam kehidupan beragama, perilaku toleran merupakan hal yang paling utama bagi setiap individu yang menginginkan kehidupan bersama yang aman dan saling menghormati. sehingga terwujud interaksi dan kesepahaman yang baik di kalangan masyarakat beragama tentang batasan hak dan kewajiban mereka dalam kehidupan sosial yang terdiri dari berbagai macam perbedaan baik suku, ras, hingga agama dan keyakinan.

Istilah toleransi sendiri berasal dari bahasa Inggris tolerance, tolerantia dalam bahasa Latin, tasamuh atau tasahul dalam bahasa Arab yang definisinya juga tidak jauh berbeda dengan kata toleransi/ toleran. Toleransi adalah istilah dalam konteks, sosial, budaya dan agama, yang berarti suatu sikap saling menghargai kelompok-kelompok atau antar individu dalam masyarakat atau dalam lingkup lainnya.

Akan tetapi penjabaran makna toleransi ini mengandung rumusan penghargaan keberadaan orang lain, tidak lantas tampak sederhana dalam pelaksanaannya. Untuk membentuk masyarakat yang harmonis harus menghadapi begitu banyak persoalan dimasyarakat terutama berkaitan adanya perbedaan masalah agama dan keyakinan.

Hukum kemudian hadir sebagai hasil ciptaan masyarakat sekaligus menciptakan masyarakat. Sehingga konsep dalam berhukum seyogyanya adalah sejalan dengan perkembangan masyarakatnya. Toleransi dan kerukunan umat beragama merupakan salah satu cita-cita hukum bagi sebuah negara yang memiliki pluralitas agama di dalamnya, negara berperan untuk menjadi mediasi antar umat beragama.

Kebebasan beragama telah diatur dalam Pasal 2 Deklarasi Universal Hak Asasi Manusia (DUHAM): “Setiap orang berhak atas semua hak dan kebebasan-kebebasan yang tercantum di dalam Deklarasi ini tanpa perkecualian apapun, seperti ras, warna kulit, jenis kelamin, bahasa, agama, politik atau pendapat yang berlainan, asal mula kebangsaan atau kemasyarakatan, hak milik, kelahiran, ataupun kedudukan lain.”

Dan juga dituangkan dalam Konstitusi UUD 1945 sebagaimana pasal 28 E ayat (1) dan ayat (2) mengenai kebebasan beragama dan beribadah, pasal 28 I ayat (1) hak untuk beragama merupakan hak asasi manusia, dalam pasal 28 J ayat (1) dan (2) mengatur mengenai kewajiban menghormati hak asasi manusia dan batasan dalam undang-undang, sedangkan pasal 29 memberikan jaminan dalam menjalankan agama dan kepercayaannya.

Pada tahun 1995, Perserikatan Bangsa-bangsa (PBB) mengukuhkan “Hari Toleransi Internasional” pada tanggal 16 November. Salah satu ruh dari ditetapkannya Hari Toleransi Internasional adalah sebagai upaya untuk mengingatkan dan memberikan pendidikan kepada masyarakat tentang pentingnya toleransi.

Peringatan “Hari Toleransi Internasional” diharapkan tidak menjadi simbol dan seremonial semata, akan tetapi menjadi perwujudan nyata di tengah-tengah masyarakat. Meskipun perbedaan agama/keyakinan/faham suatu agama adalah suatu keniscayaan, dan merupakan pilihan yang menuntut pemeluknya untuk bertanggung jawab atas agama yang diyakininya.

Islam memandang perbedaan sebagai hak yang paling mendasar, perbedaan adalah fitrah dan seyogyanya menjadi rahmatan lil alamin, ini cukup menjadi alasan untuk melepaskan jurang perbedaan keberagaman umat beragama dalam berinteraksi satu sama lain dalam kehidupan masyarakat, karena selain pilihan manusia ada kehendak dari Tuhan untuk menentukan seseorang beragama tertentu.

Pesan ini terdapat dalam firman Allah SWT: “Dan jikalau Tuhanmu menghendaki, tentulah beriman semua orang yang di muka bumi seluruhnya, Maka apakah kamu (hendak) memaksa manusia supaya mereka menjadi orang-orang yang beriman semuanya?” (QS. Yunus : 99).

Semoga bumi selalu damai dan semua pihak selalu bergandengan tangan, apapun keyakinannya.

Hijriani Hadz

akademisi hukum, tinggal di Kendari

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Hijriani Hadz

akademisi hukum, tinggal di Kendari

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