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Skandal Meikarta dan Tragedy of Commons

Ilustrasi: Luki Ahmadi Hari Wardoyo

Terbongkarnya kasus suap proyek Maikarta yang menyeret sejumlah petinggi Lippo Group dan pejabar daerah menambah daftar korupsi korporasi dalam perjalanan pemberantasan korupsi oleh KPK. Pejabat Grup Lippo diduga melakukan suap untuk memuluskan izin pembangunan proyek Meikarta. Bupati Kabupaten Bekasi Neneng Hasanah Yasin bersama empat pejabat pemerintah Kabupaten Bekasi diduga menerima suap Rp 7 miliar dari total komitmen Rp 13 miliar dari petinggi Grup Lippo. Suap tersebut diberikan sebagai bagian komitmen fee atas pengurusan izin proyek pembangunan Meikarta yang terbagi dalam tiga fase dengan luas lahan 438 hektar.

Tentu, kasus suap ini bukan satu-satunya kasus korupsi yang melibatkan antara negara dan korporasi. Namun semakin memperlihatkan daftar panjang keterlibatan aktor non-negara (non-state actor) dalam sebuah kasus korupsi. Relasi antara negara dan korporasi yang menghasilkan tindak pidana korupsi memiliki relasi yang sangat kompleks serta memberikan dampak yang kompleks pula, sehingga permasalahan ini perlu dianalisis lebih lanjut untuk menjernihkan persoalan serta mengungkap fakta struktural yang tak banyak diperbincangkan dalam ulasan kasus ini.

Asosiasi Pengembang Perumahan dan Permukiman Seluruh Indonesia (APERSI) menanggapi suap ini dengan menyatakan bahwa kasus suap ini terjadi akibat proses perizinan yang seharusnya mudah kerap kali dipersulit oleh oknum pemerintah daerah sehingga para pengembang harus mengeluarkan biaya khusus. Asumsi ini menggambarkan seakan-akan masalah korupsi hanya semata-mata sekedar masalah teknis-birokratik atau mal-administrasi akibat birokrasi tak berjalan berdasarkan prinsip apa yang dikatakan Weber “rasionalitas teknokratik” yang didasarkan pada nilai rasionalitas dan efisiensi.

Dengan kata lain, korupsi dalam perspektif ini disebut sebagai fenomena “patologi birokrasi” yang disebabkan oleh perilaku disfungsional para pejabat pimpinan birokrasi, persepsi yang tidak tepat dan perilaku atau gaya manajerial yang menyimpang dari prinsip-prinsip rasionalitas teknokratik. Pendekatan ini hanya mampu mendeteksi dan menjelaskan korupsi sebagai perilaku yang menyimpang dari prinsip-prinsip yang seharusnya. Namun gagal menganalisa dan menjelaskan mengapa perilaku yang menyimpang itu muncul atau lahir. Maka pendekatan ini seringkali tak memadahi untuk menjelaskan peristiwa korupsi sebagai fenomena sosial.

Korupsi dan Kapitalisme

Kasus suap proyek Meikarta diduga dilakukan untuk mendapatkan izin mendirikan bangunan (IMB), yang konon tak sesuai dengan rekomendasi pemerintah provini Jawa Barat yakni proyek Maikarta hanya dapat dibangun di atas lahan seluas 84,6 hektare, namun dengan suap puluhan miliar pihak Lippo dapat memperoleh izin tambahan 438,1 hektar dalam tiga fase. Berdasarkan rencana Grup Lippo, megaproyek Meikarta membutuhkan lahan seluas 500 hektar namun pemprov Jawa Barat pada akhir 2017 lalu hanya memberikan izin pembangunan proyek Meikarta dengan lahan seluas 84,6 hektar, jauh di bawah kebutuhan lahan yang diharapkan perusahaan.

Dengan kata lain, suap itu terjadi karena ada perbedaan yang significan antara lahan yang diizinkan oleh pemerintah (84,6 hektare) dengan kebutuhan korporasi untuk ekspansi bisnis (500 hektare). Perizinan yang mentok dari Pemprov Jawa Barat tak menghentikan langkah Grup Lippo memuluskan megaproyek Meikarta hingga melahirkan relasi “kongkalikong” antara pejabat pemerintah daerah dengan para petinggi Lippo Group. Artinya, kita tidak bisa menganggap bahwa korupsi itu muncul semata-mata karena ada perilaku disfungsional para pejabat pimpinan birokrasi, melainkan juga ada kebutuhan korporasi untuk ekspansi bisnis.

John Girling melalui karyanya Corruption, Capitalism, and Democracy menjelaskan maraknya korupsi setali tiga uang dengan adanya kebutuhan ekspansi kapitalisme yang semakin meluas. Girling menceritakan perkembangan Perancis di era Third Republic dimana dimulainya rezim korup dalam sejarah Perancis, tak terlepas dari kapitalisme yang sedang berkembang di Perancis pada saat itu. Perkembangan aktivitas bisnis di Perancis baik terkait dengan pertumbuhan industri atau investasi ke luar negeri membuat sektor bisnis kian mencari dukungan kepada kelompok-kelompok politik untuk memuluskan ekspansi bisnis mereka.

Girling berpendapat bahwa sebelum kita menunjuk nilai-nilai normatif seperti efisiensi, integritas dan rasionalitas teknokratik sebagai akar penyebab korupsi, kita perlu memeriksa kondisi struktural dimana korupsi itu terjadi. Pengaruh meningkatnya kekayaan (wealth) terhadap kekuatan politik menjadi elemen penting dalam analisis struktural tentang latar penyebab terjadinya korupsi. Dengan meningkatnya kekayaan, pengaruh grup-grup bisnis semakin besar terhadap pembuatan dan pengambilan keputusan politik. Disinilah memungkinkan terjadinya kolusi antara elite bisnis dan elite politik. Kolusi tersebut akan semakin mudah terjadi apabila terjadi simbiosis-mutualisme dimana kekuatan politik membutuhkan uang untuk merebut dan mempertahankan kekuasaannya sedangkan kekuatan ekonomi (elite bisnis) membutuhkan politik untuk memperlancar akumulasi modal mereka.

Lebih jauh, Yuki Fukuoka melalui karyanya Politics, Business and the State in Post-Soeharto Indonesia menyatakan bahwa demokrasi elektoral pasca-Soeharto telah membawa pengaruh kekuatan bisnis lebih dominan dalam arena politik. Hal ini disebabkan demokrasi elektoral yang berbiaya tinggi, membuat kekuatan uang menjadi sumber kekuasaan yang paling vital. Dalam titik ini, seperti apa yang dikatakan Christian Chua, demokratisasi dan reformasi pasca-Soeharto justru memfasilitasi munculnya plutocratic regime, sebuah rezim yang dikuasai segelintir orang kaya. Dalam rezim ini, peranan para Taipan (tycoon) sangatlah penting dalam pengambilan keputusan politik dan pembentukan kekuasaan.

Mochtar Riady pemilik Lippo Group adalah salah satu miliarder yang masuk dalam daftar orang terkaya versi majalah Forbes. Berdasarkan rilis Forbes, kekayaannya mencapai 3 miliar dollar AS. Tipikal rezim plutokrat seperti apa yang dikatakan Chrystia Freeland, yakni menggunakan kekayaan mereka untuk menyuap dan melobi para politisi untuk mempengaruhi dan mengubah keputusan politik. Di awal-awal masa Industrialisasi Amerika, juga terjadi hal yang sama ketika industrialisasi dan aktivitas bisnis sedang berada pada masa pertumbuhan yang pesat, seorang Taipan Amerika—John D. Rockefeller mengumpulkan kekayaan besar dan menyuap para politisi untuk memuluskan kepentingan bisnisnya. Maka fenomena korupsi tak bisa hanya dilihat sebagai fenomena “patologi birokrasi”.

Meikarta dan Tragedy of Commons

Fenomena perselingkuhan (kolusi) antara kepentingan bisnis dan entitas politik membuat distingsi kepentingan privat dan kepentingan publik semakin kabur. Penyalahgunaan kekuasaan oleh sejumlah elite politik akhirnya menjadi hal yang biasa. Hal ini menyebabkan dikorbakannya kepentingan hajat hidup orang banyak (commons good) hanya demi kepentingan privat.

Sejak pertama kali Lippo Grup menggadang-gadang Meikarta, megaproyek tersebut terbelit sejumlah permasalahan mulai dari tata ruang, perizinan properti, AMDAL hingga pemasaran. Selama berjalannya megaproyek Meikarta, menurut Direktur Jenderal Sumber Daya Air Kementerian PUPR belum ada kajian tentang kebutuhan air baku untuk kawasan yang ditargetkan akan ditempati sekitar satu juta orang itu. Salah satu sumber air baku yang kemudian diolah menjadi air bersih, yang lokasinya terdekat dengan megaproyek Meikarta adalah waduk Jatiluhur, Jawa Barat. Namun, belum bisa diperhitungkan kemampuan waduk Jatiluhur bila dialirkan ke Meikarta.

Saat ini, kapasitas air baku di bendungan Jatiluhur hanya diperuntukkan bagi DKI Jakarta dan sekitarnya. DKI mendapatkan pasokan air baku dari Waduk Jatiluhur sebanyak 5000 liter per detik dari total kapasitas sebesar 6 miliar kubik air. Apabila megaproyek Meikarta menggunakan sumber air baku dari waduk Jatiluhur, maka berpotensi mengurangi pasokan air bersih di daerah sekitar Jawa Barat dan DKI Jakarta. Dengan kata lain, megaproyek Meikarta dapat mengancam ketersediaan air bagi masyarakat di sekitar area Meikarta dan DKI Jakarta.

Selain itu, dengan adanya skandal suap terkait megaproyek Meikarta membuat nasib konsumen apartemen Meikarta terkatung-katung. Tentu, dengan adanya kasus suap terkait perizinan megaproyek Meikarta memicu keresahan bahkan akan menjadi alasan bagi konsumen untuk mengajukan refund atau uang kembali. Apabila para pengembang tak bisa memastikan keberlanjutan proyek ini agar tidak merugikan konsumen. Maka megaproyek Meikarta ini berhenti menjadi kota impian, namun justru berbalik menjadi fenomena apa yang disebut Garrett Hardin sebagai The tragedy of the commons, dimana kepentingan privat untuk keuntungan korporasi mengorbankan kepentingan hajat hidup orang banyak.

Arjuna Putra Aldino

Mahasiswa Pascasarjana, Sekolah Kajian Stratejik dan Global, Universitas Indonesia

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Arjuna Putra Aldino

Mahasiswa Pascasarjana, Sekolah Kajian Stratejik dan Global, Universitas Indonesia

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