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Samurai di St Lidwina: Mengurai Kegilaan Suliyono

Ilustrasi (Sumber foto: kompas.com)

SULIYONO tiba-tiba mengamuk di Paroki St Lidwina Sleman Yogyakarta, Minggu pagi (11/2). Di tangannya, terhunus pedang samurai yang melukai lima orang; empat jemaat yang sedang beribadah, dan Romo Prier. Beberapa saat setelah polisi melesakkan peluru ke perut lelaki asal Pesanggaran Banyuwangi ini, serangkuman hujatan meluncur deras kepadanya, termasuk cap gila agama dari Ketua Umum GP Ansor.

Benarkah Suliyono gila dalam arti sebenarnya? Tak waras sehingga perlu dirawat di rumah sakit jiwa? Atau, kegilaan ini lebih merujuk pada kondisi overdosis akibat dogma atau ajaran tertentu?

Foucault dalam Madness and Civilization (1988) mencoba meyakinkan publik bahwa kegilaan bukanlah sesuatu yang natural, alias tidak ujug-ujug. Alih-alih, kondisi ini sangat dipengaruhi struktur budaya, intelektual, dan juga ekonomi yang ada di sekitar korban.

Seseorang dengan tingkat pendidikan rata-rata, tanpa kebencian terhadap orang lain, akan bisa berubah jika terus diasupi pengetahuan yang sebaliknya. Dinamika perubahan ini sangat ditentukan setidaknya dua hal: sejauh mana penetrasi indoktrinasi dan kesempatan untuk memverifikasi indoktrinasi tersebut. Semakin kecil kesempatan memverifikasi indoktrinasi dan di saat yang sama indoktrinasi berlangsung dengan ketat, maka bisa dipastikan kegilaan ala Suliyono akan semakin cepat terjadi.

Mari kita bayangkan secara lebih konkret.  Teks klasik Islam, jika dibaca secara literal, menyediakan begitu lengkap perangkat suci untuk memandang agama lain, Yahudi, Nasrani, dan penyembah berhala, secara rendah dan sesat. Tak ketinggalan, berbagai atribut miring dan peyoratif dilekatkan secara kuat kepada mereka (QS. 2:10, 2:99, 3:110, 2:171, 3:73, 8:55, 14:18)

Atribut stigmatif yang menurut saya sangat besar menyumbang “kegilaan” adalah tudingan bahwa Yahudi dan Nasrani gemar mengajak Muslim berpindah agama (menjadi non-muslim), sebagaimana arti literal QS.2:120.

“Dan orang-orang Yahudi dan Nasrani tidak akan rela kepadamu (Muhammad) sebelum engkau mengikuti agama mereka. Katakanlah, “Sesungguhnya petunjuk Allah itulah petunjuk (yang sebenarnya).” Dan jika engkau mengikuti keinginan mereka setelah ilmu (kebenaran) sampai kepadamu, tidak akan ada bagimu pelindung dan penolong dari Allah.”

Padahal, ayat ini merespon hal yang sangat spesifik yakni situasi kontestasi keagamaan di Madinah antara tahun 622-631. Menurut Ibnu Abbas, sebagaimana dikutip oleh al-Wahidi dalam kitabnya Asbab al-Nuzul, ayat ini berkaitan dengan keinginan Yahudi dan Nasrani Madinah yang berharap Nabi tetap menjadikan Masjid al-Aqsa sebagai kiblat, sebagaimana yang telah dilakukan beliau selama 12 tahun sejak di Makkah, sebelum akhirnya Allah meminta mengubahnya ke Ka’bah di Makkah (Dasthi 1994).

Alasan spesifik ini tidak akan pernah disampaikan dalam pengajaran Islam kekinian karena sangat mungkin ketiadaan pengetahuan akan hal ini. Alih-alih, ayat ini justru dibaca literal, tercerabut dari konteksnya, dan diajarkan sejak play group hingga universitas. Jika demikian halnya, maka secara otomatis seluruh orang Yahudi dan Kristen akan terpenjara dalam prasangka yang berbahaya.

Situasi keterancaman yang diciptakan oleh kegagalan membaca teks suci ini selanjutnya dibalut oleh beberapa ayat lain, misalnya ayat pedang yang sebagian besar ada di QS. 9. Ayat-ayat ini memberikan lampu hijau bagi Muslim untuk bersikap ofensif terhadap Yahudi dan Kristen.

Asupan dogmatis-intelektualis seperti ini dijaga dalam lingkungan yang membenarkan hal itu, dan tidak memberikan ruang sekecilpun bagi Muslim, setidaknya bagi Suliyono, untuk membenturkan klaim religius tadi dengan realitas kehidupan.

Secara kultural, Muslim seperti dirinya, juga dirawat dengan baik oleh keyakinan biner: bahwa tidak ada kebenaran selain Islam, dan non-muslim harus diperangi sampai mereka masuk Islam atau menjadi warga kelas dua (dhimmiyun).

Saya sangat ingin membaca rekam jejak Suliyono, setidaknya dalam 4 tahun terakhir ini. Di mana ia hidup, dengan siapa ia berteman dan makan, siapa saja gurunya, apa yang ia baca, apa aktifitasnya sehari-hari. Sejauh mana ia berinteraksi dengan non muslim, bagaimana ia membiayai hidupnya, dan lain-lain.

Data ini penting, setidaknya untuk mencari pola bagaimana “kegilaan” ini dikonstruksi dan sekaligus berguna untuk menemukan antibiotik agar masyarakat Muslim Indonesia kuat menahan injeksi teks sebagaimana di atas.

Saya juga khawatir, stempel kegilaan yang disematkan pada Suliyono hanya akan mendorong publik menganggapnya aneh dan minor. Padahal, seperti yang dijelaskan di atas, situasi kultural dan intelektual di lingkup komunitas Muslim terus didedah dengan cara Suliyono.

Itu sebabnya, survei-survei intoleransi akhir-akhir ini terus menunjukkan fakta yang memburuk. Kegilaan agama sesungguhnya telah bergerak, pelan tapi pasti, dengan samurai di tangan. Jika sudah demikian, saya mengamini Foucault, “…[we] accepts error as truth, lies as reality, violence and ugliness as beauty and justice,” Sampai kapan kita bisa mengakhiri kegilaan ini?

Wallahu a’lam.

Aan Anshori

Aan Anshori

Kordinator Jaringan Islam Antidiskriminasi (JIAD), tengah nyantri di S2 Hukum Keluarga Islam Univ. Hasyim Asy'ari Tebuireng Jombang, twitter @aananshori

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Tentang Penulis

Aan Anshori

Aan Anshori

Kordinator Jaringan Islam Antidiskriminasi (JIAD), tengah nyantri di S2 Hukum Keluarga Islam Univ. Hasyim Asy'ari Tebuireng Jombang, twitter @aananshori

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