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Ruang Radikalisme Kriminalisasi Ruang Masjid

Sebuah lembaga penelitian dan pengabdian masyarakat yang terafiliasi dengan ormas Nahdlatul Ulama mengeluarkan hasil survey bahwa ditemukan sebanyak 41 masjid di lingkungan pemerintahan/BUMN terpapar virus radikalisme.

Apa yang disebut virus tadi adalah materi dan khatib yang dianggap radikal, berpotensi merusak persatuan dan intoleransi,

Sejujurnya pada hasil survey seperti ini kita tidak perlu serius menanyakan metodologi kuantitatif atau kualitatif dan seterusnya. Ini karena tujuan dari survey ini memang hanya menjadi pre-text bagi lahirnya sebuah tindakan lainnya. Sebuah survey sejatinya tidak boleh mengarahkan temuannya untuk melakukan framing sebuah agenda kepada opini tertentu. Apalagi sulit bagi pemirsa untuk tidak melihatnya sebagai sebuah pendasaran atas opini tadi kepada tindakan atau aksi politisonal.

Yaitu munculnya spekulasi akan adanya usaha melarang-larang orang melakukan dakwah dengan alasan keamanan negara (internal security act) yang berpotensi menjadi tindakan pasal karet untuk memberangus kebebasan publik di ruang publik. Belum lagi jika dikaitkan dengan pemilihan lokasi masjid yang adalah masjid dengan mayoritas jamaahnya adalah kelompok muslim urban dan pengurusnya adalah pegawai atau pejabat di instansi pemerintah atau badan usaha milik pemerintah. Yang bukannya tidak beralasan, jika nantinya survey ini akan digunakan untuk meretool (mengganti) jajaran komisaris, direksi atau pejabat di lingkungan di maksud.

Jika kita perhatikan gejala mengkriminalisasi ruang masjid dengan menghubungkannya dengan satu tindakan atau afiliasi kelompok tertentu ini bukanlah hal baru. Kira-kira satu dekade lalu yang disebut sarang kriminal itu bukanlah masjid, tetapi pesantren-pesantren yang ada di kampung-kampung.

Asumsi ini muncul ketika hampir semua pelaku aksi teror bom bunuh diri di tanah air ternyata adalah para santri di pesantren yang jauh dari kota. Mereka setelah melalui pengajian dan pencucian otak menganggap bahwa tindakan bunuh diri dengan meledakkan bom adalah perbuatan jihad. Beberapa tokoh pesantren yang mengajarkan konsep “penganten surga” ini kemudian ditahan, dihukum penjara dan beberapa di hukum mati. Setelahnya kita tidak lagi mendengar adanya pesantren sebagai sarang teroris.

Rupanya baru belakangan agenda kriminalisasi tadi bergerak ke dalam ruang radikalisme baru; yaitu masjid-urban. Yang mengambil setting bukan lagi pesantren kampung namun masjid-masjid kantor, di lingkungan pemerintahan dan perusahaan negara. Menyasar kepada mereka yang bukan lagi santri desa nan miskin tetapi kelompok menengah Islam kota dengan penghasilan rata-rata cukup dan pendidikan tinggi.

Perpindahan setting latar dari kedua kasus ini bukanlah hal yang terjadi begitu saja. Ini adalah apa yang pernah dikaji Michael Foucault dalam Space of Otherness sebagai posesi tindakan manusia menciptakan ruangnya sebagai ruang terbaik dengan tentu saja menciptakan pembanding-pembanding. Dimana yang lain (the rest, the other) sebagai lebih rendah. Aktivitas meletakkan ruangnya sebagai yang terbaik dan sekaligus melainkan yang lain tadi merupakan sesuatu yang alamiah, ini karena manusia adalah makhluk yang menempatkan diri, badan, atribut, dan eksistens mereka di dalam ruang. Ia membutuhkan pengakuan-pengakuan di dalamnya.

Bila kita melihat mengapa pesantren atau masjid? Maka seperti juga halnya gereja, vihara, pura, atau kuil adalah ruang heterotopia yang kita sepakati sebagai religious sphere. Ruang yang transendent yang menghubungkan antara dunia pemikiran dan praktik ritual, antara dunia kasat dengan dunia abstrak, antara dunia bawah dan langit. Sebuah sacre d el space (ruang sakral) yang hanya difahami oleh mereka yang saling menautkan kepercayaan dengan keyakinannya.  Melalui konstruksi sosial nan kompleks ruang sakral tadi akan memiliki warna-warna yang sesuai dengan apa yang dipraktikkan oleh komunitas di dalamnya.

Dasar dari terbentuknya aneka ruang yang dianggap dapat menampung praktik sosial masyarakat (sembahyang, shalat, kebaktian, dll.) bagi Foucault dan selanjutnya Levebre (production e el space) adalah produk interaktif dari praktik manusia terhadap ruangnya. Ia bisa dianggap normal, abnormal atau netral saja. Tentu saja hal ini terjadi pula dalam konteks ruang yang lain seperti ruang pteorean (tangsi militer, markas, atau komplek tentara lainnya) atau ruang penjara, pabrik, rumah sakit dan sekolah yang hidup dengan aturan dan kaidah interaksi yang berbeda-beda.

Misalnya di sebuah komplek tentara ada ditulis: Hati-hati anda memasuki kawasan militer, Turunkan kaca kendaraan, Matikan lampu kendaraan, atau Buka helm anda, maka semua hal tadi terbentuk bukan untuk memberikan ancaman kepada yang lain atau “the others” . Juga bukan tiadanya kepercayaan kepada mereka yang masuk ke ruang mereka. Namun itu adalah praktik sosial dari masyarakat di dalamnya yang telah menyepakati hal-hal tadi berdasarkan SoP tertentu. Kita sekali lagi tidak dapat mengatakan jika di komplek tentara tidak aman, kasar atau terlalu streril. Atau bila kita melihat para buruh berdiri dalam lini tertentu mengerjakan tindakan otomatis dalam sebuah ruang produksi di pabrik maka kita tidak dapat mengambil kesimpulan survey jika pabrik terpapar virus otomatisasi yang membuat manusia menjadi makhluk otomata tanpa pikiran.

Sama halnya ketika kita katakan bahwa masjid A, B, C atau D itu terpapar radikalisme, maka sebenarnya ini merujuk kepada praktik sosial yang dilakukan dalam ruang masjid tersebut. Bahwa di dalamnya dilangsungkan sebuah pengajian, diskusi, atau perkumpulan maka itu adalah produk dari hasil praktik sosial jamaah atau aktivis masjid atau gereja itu sendiri.

Artinya pertanyaan ini kembali kepada pengkritiknya sendiri. Apa dan bagaimana praktik sosial di dalam ruang itu terbentuk adalah tergantung bagaimana mereka yang aktif, atau siapa saja yang mau terlibat dalam mengurus perkembangan ruang masjid tadi.

Singkatnya jika, anda tidak menyukai sebuah masjid melakukan ceramah dengan TOA atau tidak sreg dengan isi ceramah si ustad maka satu-satunya cara meresponnya menurut Foucault adalah menghindarinya (mengabaikannya) atau anda menerjunkan diri menjadi pengurus dari masjid tadi dan mulailah aktif memakmurkannya sebagai jamaah atau penguasa dari si masjid.

Ini tentu tidak lucu, tetapi hanya melalui sebuah interaksilah maka produksi ruang baru dapat berobah ke arah yang dikehendaki. Jika misalnya kita menganggap aktivitas orang di dalamnya sebagai sebuah tindakan yang radikal (radict, atau mengakar) maka apa yang keliru dengan hal tadi. Ini karena dasarnya setiap wacana yang melibatkan keyakinan seperti halnya filsafat, ideologi apalagi agama mesti merupakan bagian tidak terlepaskan dari proses menemukan akar, asal muasal, kehakikian atau otentisitas.

Bila definisi atau kriteria ototentisitas tadi berbeda maka kembali bahwa  setiap penilaian baik atau buruk hanya sah ketika dia dimanifestasikan di ranah praktik. Sejauh mereka yang disebut radikal tadi hanya bermain-maian di wilayah pemikiran maka hanya perang wacana pemikiran yang dapat kita tawarkan. Pikiran vis a vis pikiran, fisikal vis a fis hukum fisikal.

Bila hari ini banyak masjid kantor dan pemerintahan diwarnai oleh model halaqah dan pengajian bergaya tablig halaqah ala masjid kampus dengan isi kajian lebih kepada pemurnian agama dan isu-isu politik agama itu adalah hal yang alamiah. Kebanyakan kajian masjid kota, kantor atau kampus adalah kajian seperti itu, karena mayoritas jamaahnya adalah mereka yang mengalami pengalaman spiritual berbeda dengan mereka yang ada di pedesaan.

Agama menjadi penting sejalan dengan kemunculan kesadaran-kesadaran baru dari hasil interaksi dia dengan ruang kota. Yang mereka cari umumnya adalah akar dari model beragama, apa darimana, kemana mereka membaktikan dirinya setelah pencapaian-pencapaian material (gaji besar, jabatan dst.).

Penderitan kaum urbanis ini pernah ditulis Hossen Nasr (The Spiritual crisis of Modern Man) sebagai gejala masyarakat modern. Mereka berbeda dengan masyarakat tradisional yang masih terikat kepada akar tradisi adalah orang-orang yang berusaha menemukan kembali akar-akar spiritualitasnya (radic). Ini mengapa dengan sendirinya mereka menjadi radicalist dalam pengertian awal, yaitu mereka yang berusaha mencari akar, tautan keyakinan spiritual mereka.

Pada awal 1990 KH Abdurrahman Wahid membela pengajian yang diselenggarakan Nurcholish Madjid. Kebanyakan peserta pengajian Cak Nur demikian ia dipanggil adalah para pejabat dan petinggi perusahaan. Mereka memilih hotel atau aula bagus berpendingin ketika melakukan pengajian. Bagi Gus Dur apa yang dikerjakan Nurcholish adalah mengenalkan spiritualitas dikalangan yang tidak lagi sibuk dengan persoalan mencari makan tetapi gelisah dengan persoalan keimanan. Ia tidak dapat memaksa orang-orang ini untuk mengaji a la pesantren tradisional. Gerakan dakwah model Para-madina (penduduk kota) Cak Nur awalnya juga dianggap gerakan radikalisme dakwah Islam.

Hampir dua puluh tahun ke belakang, munculnya masjid-masjid kantor dan kampus yang cukup bagus dan berwibawa seperti hari ini tidak terlepas dari peran kader-kader PKS/PK dan sedikit dari Hmi. Merekalah yang bekerja keras mengisi ruang-ruang spiritual manusia kota yang compang-camping seperti ditulis Hossen Nasr.

Tentu saja mereka akan memberi warna ruang pengajiannya dengan praktik sosial yang biasa mereka kerjakan. Apakah itu praktik radikalisme dalam beragama di masjid-masjid urban? Kita harus berhati-hati menempatkan indikator, ini karena memang akan sulit melepaskan tudingan bahwa survey semacam ini tidak lepas dari kepentingan penguasaan ruang. Belum lagi bila kita menghitung afiliasi politik jamaah masjid ini yang sudah pasti berbeda dengan garis politik penguasa pemerintahan sekarang.

 

Andi Hakim

Andi Hakim

Andi Hakim, pernah kuliah di ITB Bandung. Memperoleh beasiswa Lee Kuan Yew di LKYSPP-National University of Singapore untuk Magister of Public Management dan Harvard University AS. Peneliti Kerjasama Pembangunan untuk OECD, penggiat energi baru terbarukan dan biodiversitas berkelanjutan di SiaBios Berlin. Senang menulis apa saja di sosial media.

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Tentang Penulis

Andi Hakim

Andi Hakim

Andi Hakim, pernah kuliah di ITB Bandung. Memperoleh beasiswa Lee Kuan Yew di LKYSPP-National University of Singapore untuk Magister of Public Management dan Harvard University AS. Peneliti Kerjasama Pembangunan untuk OECD, penggiat energi baru terbarukan dan biodiversitas berkelanjutan di SiaBios Berlin. Senang menulis apa saja di sosial media.

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