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Rambu-rambu Strategis Menyambut Ombak Disrupsi

Kita tentu tidak ingin terbuai oleh silaunya revolusi industri 4.0 yang bila dibiarkan, celakanya dapat menidurkan kepekaan sosial kita terhadap konsekuensi-konsekuensi logis yang ditimbulkan dari otomasi segala bidang. Mulai dari pergantian tenaga manusia oleh mesin, hingga dampak teknologi pada isu-isu riil seperti ketimpangan sosial, kemiskinan, dan masalah rendahnya kualitas sumber daya manusia.

Disrupsi bagaikan ombak yang menggulung dengan cepat praktik-praktik keseharian yang lazim kita lakukan. Dan digantikannya setumpuk praktik itu dengan konsep-konsep baru seperti pendefinisian ulang oleh manusia tentang jarak, kehadiran fisik, makna pendidikan, kedekatan sosial, transaksi bisnis, hingga penggunaan mata uang krypto (cryptocurrency).

Gebrakan-gebrakan ini menanti respon yang tepat dari masyarakat. Tentunya, pemerintah dituntut tanggap ketika dihadapkan pada perubahan sosial yang menyentuh segala sendi kehidupan, baik di wilayah publik maupun privat.

Pertama, pemerintah perlu menginisiasi tindakan yang orientasinya adalah menyiapkan dan melatih sumber sumber daya manusia agar semakin mumpuni. Terutama menyangkut literasi digital dengan tingkat kompleksitas yang lebih. Birokrat perlu ditingkatkan kualitasnya untuk semakin memahami penggunaan piranti lunak dalam memberikan pelayanan publik yang lebih efisien, serta diarahkan pula untuk tanggap dan lincah dalam merespon situasi sosial yang juga terjadi di ranah digital.

Para pengambil kebijakan dan pembuat Undang-undang kiranya juga penting untuk mengarusutamakan pendekatan teknologi dan dampak sosialnya dalam mengambil keputusan. Khususnya yang berkaitan dengan teknologi dan informasi, perluasan jaringan internet, dan pemerintahan elektronik (e-government).

Satu hal krusial yang menuntut perhatian lebih dari pemegang otoritas adalah fakta bahwa dengan semakin terkoneksinya penduduk dengan dunia digital tidak semerta-merta dapat mengurangi ketimpangan sosial yang ada.

Bagi mereka yang menguasai keahlian pemrograman, multimedia (rekayasa grafis dan video), pemrosesan big data dan analitik akan dihargai lebih dalam pasar tenaga kerja. Namun bagi beberapa segmen masyarakat yang tidak cukup cakap di bidang tersebut, pelan-pelan akan tersingkir dalam rantai ekonomi.

Oleh karena itu, langkah kedua yang harus ditempuh adalah merancang dasar-dasar kurikulum pendidikan yang menempatkan keterampilan-keterampilan digital sebagai komponen yang esensial. Tidak menutup kemungkinan jika nantinya kemampuan (skill) seperti menulis program (programming) dan penggalian data (data mining) bakal menjadi mata pelajaran wajib sekolah dasar dan menengah.

Ketiga, komitmen untuk membangun tatanan sosial yang kuat tidak bisa dicapai hanya dengan bermodalkan retorika. Penguatan itu seyogyanya berangkat dari tekad untuk menginternalisasi postulat bahwa teknologi itu tidak akan pernah netral dan bebas nilai, sehingga akan selalu ada tantangan yang mengikutinya.

Tantangan itu termasuk merajalelanya berita-berita hoax, ujaran kebencian, dan kejahatan siber. Oleh karenanya, pemerintah dituntut untuk selalu jeli dalam mendesain model kebijakan yang menekankan penyelesaian friksi-friksi sosial.

Tulisan Profesor Soemantri Brodjonegoro berjudul Kecakapan Era 4.0 yang dimuat Kompas 14 Februari lalu, menunjuk kecakapan sosial sebagai kecakapan yang akan terus dibutuhkan dalam menyongsong revolusi industri keempat. Cakap dalam relasi sosial mencakup pemahaman akan pentingnya etika komunikasi, kerja sama (team work), dan analisis persoalan adalah beberapa diantaranya yang semakin penting untuk dikembangkan di tengah kompleksnya masalah sehari-hari di era informasi.

Kajian akan strategi memupuk salah satu kecakapan jenis ini kiranya bisa menjadi petunjuk, serta rujukan contoh bagi para elit dan pemangku kepentingan untuk memikirkan langkah antisipatif sebelum mengesahkan kebijakan-kebijakan strategis berbasis teknologi.

Keempat, berpegangan erat pada prinsip pemajuan teknologi, namun di saat yang bersamaan juga mendedikasikan bakti negeri demi pengayaan studi-studi yang memelajari keterkelindanan antara masyarakat, budaya, dan teknologi itu sendiri. Teknologi lahir dari interaksi masyarakat, jaringan kolektif, dan karena adanya dukungan struktur sosial yang memadai.

Langkah ini dapat ditempuh dengan memberikan penghargaan dan tempat pada ilmu-ilmu sosial setara dengan ilmu-ilmu alam dan teknik. Perlu diingat jika problem sosial tidak bisa dipecahkan dengan menyerahkan seluruhnya pada penyelesaian teknis-digital, tetapi pendekatan sosial-humanis perlu untuk dikedepankan karena di balik urusan mesin dengan mesin ada manusia-manusia yang mengendalikannya,

Kelima, revolusi industri generasi keempat menghadapkan kita pada kontur bisnis,  perdagangan, dan hukum yang baru. Percaturan politik pun berubah mengikuti bergesernya model pertukaran barang dan jasa yang baru. Aktifitas perniagaan kini semakin mudah karena hadirnya raksasa-raksasa teknologi komunikasi dan informasi seperti Google dan Facebook, tetapi isu pelanggaran privasi juga kerap dialamatkan pada kedua korporasi tersebut.

Sebagai negara dengan peringkat pengguna keduanya (Google dan Facebook), termasuk dalam satu dari lima pengakses terbesar di dunia, sudah saatnya Indonesia semakin menunjukkan tajinya dalam menegosiasi ulang kiprah korporasi tersebut.

Renegosiasi itu beralasan kuat karena Google dan Facebook yang menikmati pasar dalam negeri kita sewajarnya tunduk pada hukum-hukum Indonesia. Proses ini tidak hanya melambangkan tawar-menawar ekonomi, tapi bukti bahwa diplomasi Indonesia atas urusan-urusan yang bertaut dengan teknologi menunjukkan bahwa daulat politik atas politik di balik teknologi itu ada dan nyata.

Febby Widjayanto

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Febby Widjayanto

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