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Politik Kematian Dalam Hukuman Mati

Ilustrasi: Luki Ahmadi Hari Wardoyo

Indonesia kembali berduka. Pada tanggal 29 Oktober lalu salah seorang Warga Negara Indonesia bernama Tuti Tursilawati yang berprofesi sebagai pekerja migran dieksekusi mati oleh Pemerintah Arab Saudi. Eksekusi mati Tuti hanya satu dari 73 kasus eksekusi mati yang dilakukan Arab Saudi mulai awal 2018 sampai 24 Oktober 2018, melansir deathpenaltyworldwide.org. Dari sumber yang sama disebutkan bahwa mulai tahun 2015 sampai tahun Oktober 2018, setidaknya 531 tindakan eksekusi mati telah dilakukan oleh Pemerintah Arab Saudi. Dikutip dari The Guardians jumlah ini menjadikan Arab Saudi negara dengan eksekusi mati tertinggi ketiga setelah Tiongkok dan Iran pda tahun 2016. Dilihat dari jumlahnya yang tinggi ini menjadi praktik yang banyak dilakukan oleh negara. Pertanyaannya kemudian adalah mengapa negara sebagai otoritas politik melakukan eksekusi mati yang pada titik tertentu berseberangan dengan kemanusiaan?

Filsuf Perancis, Michel Foucault meyediakan salah satu penjelasannya. Kedaulatan negara, menurut Foucault adalah persoalan menentukan siapa yang layak mati dan siapa yang layak untuk hidup. Kekuasaan negara yang paling substanbsial bukan untuk menggerakkan militer atau mengatur kebijakan ekonomi, tapi meregulasi hidup dan mati. Foucault menjelaskan bahwa pada masa sebelum modern, kedaulatan dilakukan dengan “mengurangi populasi”, misalnya dengan perintah untuk pergi berperang. Melalui mekanisme ini kekuasaan seolah hendak mengatakan, pergilah berperang kemudian mati demi loyalitasmu kepada kekuasaan, karena hidup dan matimu ada ditangan kekuasaan. Mengurangi populasi secara spontan adalah strategi yang dilakukan oleh otoritas politik untuk menunjukan kekuasaannya.

Terbentuknya negara mengubah cara otoritas politik mempraktikan kedaulatannya. Kedaulatan dipahami sebagai cara untuk mendisiplinkan warga negaranya melalui mekanisme yang disebut Foucalt sebagai biopolitics. Terbentuknya negara menggeser kuasa politik atas hidup dan mati dari spontan menjadi perlahan-lahan. Caranya adalah dengan mendirikan institusi-institusi sosial yang perlahan-lahan mengatur pola pikir, metabolisme tubuh sampai pada siklus hidup manusia berbentuk sekolah, rumah sakit dan penjara. Cara kerja ketiganya sama, mengelompokan masyarakat berdasarkan standar aturan negara sehingga dapat sampai pada konsep negara berdaulat, kemudian merekonstruksi cara berpikir, berkegiatan dan siklus hidup manusia.

Sekolah misalnya berfungsi mendisiplinkan cara berpikir, memenjarakan kebebasan berkegiatan dan mengatur ritme kegiatan manusia. Semua standar yang digunakan berdasarkan standar dari negara, demi terciptanya negara yang berdaulat. Rumah sakit di sisi lain mempunyai fungsi untuk mengatur sekaligus memisahkan yang tidak produktif dalam masyarakat (baca: sakit) dan yang produktif di masyarakat (baca: sehat). Penjara pun demikian, berfungsi untuk memisahkan yang produktif di masyarakat (baca: patuh terhadap norma) dan yang sakit (baca: kriminal). Cara negara mempraktikan kedaulatannya di zaman modern bergeser dari pengurangan populasi menjadi melindungi kehidupan yang produktif.

Di tengah cara praktik kedaulatan yang perlahan-lahan mendisiplinkan penduduknya untuk mempertahankan kedaulatan ternyata masih muncul deviasi terhadap nilai dan norma yang merupakan produk kedaulatan, di sinilah hukuman mati menemukan titik pentingnya. Penting untuk tetap mempolitisasi kematian sebagai akhir dari kehidupan. Politik kematian sebagai bentuk kedaulatan oleh negara berdasar pada konsep kehidupan hanya akan bermakna ketika ada konsep kematian. Dalam eksekusi mati yang dikontrol oleh negara adalah akselerasi terhadap kematian, sehingga makna terhadap kehidupan dari objek secara tidak langsung ditentukan juga oleh negara demi kepentingan negara, mempertahankan kedaulatan.

Cara yang digunakan dalam eksekusi juga menentukan makna yang ingin disematkan pada hidup objek. Eksekusi mati harus melalui mekanisme berhentinya organ vital secara cepat sehingga kesan menyiksa tubuh tidak terjadi. Prinsip ini kemudian memunculkan prinsip philanthropic execution, yakni eksekusi mati yang berada diantara ranah medis dan kemanusiaan. Bentuknya bisa berupa hukuman pancung, tembak mati, suntik mati, kursi listrik dan lain-lain. Semuanya merupakan bentuk akselerasi terhadap kematian yang mencoba memberi kesan humanis pada hukuman mati dan lebih jauh lagi pada kedaulatan negara.

Namun sehumanis apapun hukuman mati tetap menyimpan kepedihan. Tuti dan keluarganya adalah korban, korban politik kematian oleh negara untuk mengesankan kedaulatan yang represif namun humanis. Terlepas dari konteks politik kematian, Tuti dan keluarganya berpotensi tidak menjadi yang terakhir dalam siklus ini. Masih banyak WNI yang divonis hukuman mati oleh Arab Saudi menunggu putusan eksekusi. Semoga wajah kedaulatan yang humanis segera terkonstruksi, melalui praktik-praktik beradab dan bukan melalui ekesekusi mati.

Dias Pabyantara

Dosen HI UPNVJT

Peneliti Gender dan Globalisasi di IR-CGAS

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Dosen HI UPNVJT

Peneliti Gender dan Globalisasi di IR-CGAS

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