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Politik Batman dan Joker

Tahun 1939 Bob Kane seorang kartunis asal Amerika Serikat menciptakan karakter legendaris yang populer sampai sekarang. Ya, Batman adalah karya Kane yang diproduksi 79 tahun yang lalu, namun soal popularitas Batman adalah salah satu sosok pahlawan super paling terkenal sepanjang sejarah. Penggambaran tokoh yang misterius, sejarah kehidupan yang menyentuh dan kecanggihan teknologi yang disuguhkan ada pembaca adalah beberapa kualitas karakter Batman. Bahkan mungkin perpaduan ini yang menjadi sebab Batman mampu bertahan di tengah kemunculan karakter-karakter pahlawan super baru.

Alur cerita Batman dibangun disekitar konflik identitas. Bagaimana Bruce Wayne mempertanyakan siapa dirinya pasca orang tuanya meninggal. Dengan kekayaan yang luar biasa berlimpah ada satu lubang kosong dalam pergulatan dirinya, yaitu siapa saya dan apa tujuan saya ada di muka bumi. Memiliki semuanya, harta berlimpah, status sosial keluarga dermawan, dan pewaris tunggal kerajaan bisnis tidak serta merta membuat Bruce Wayne puas. Kebanyakan dari kita mungkin akan menggunakan sumber daya melimpah yang dimiliki untuk berfoya-foya, namun tidak dengan Bruce Wayne. Dia memilih menggunakan sumber daya yang dimiliki untuk menciptakan alat-alat canggih yang akan digunakan melawan kejahatan.

Pilihan ini bukan tanpa sejarah. Pada saat Bruce Wayne menjadi milyuner, aksi heroik yang bisa dia lakukan adalah dengan melakukan charity. Memberi bantuan kepada yang membutuhkan dalam bentuk sumbangan uang. Hal ini dianggap tidak efektif karena yang dibutuhkan Gotham adalah tokoh radikal yang mampu mencabut parasit-parasit kejahatan sampai ke radix (akarnya). Akhirnya Bruce Wayne menciptakan Batman sebagai sebuah identitas yang dapat digunakan oleh siapa saja. Batman menjadi simbol perlawanan terhadap kejahatan yang dipunyai publik Gotham secara komunal. Tidak masalah siapapun yang berada di bali topeng Batman, yang penting adalah aksi sebagai artikulasi identitas Batman.

Paska menjelma menjadi Batman, persoalan identitas bergeser kepada sosok Batman. Batman tidak seperti pahalawan super lainnya yang dengan gampang menentukan identitasnya. Berbeda dengan misalnya Superman, yang mempunyai kekuatan super-human.

Superman bisa terbang, punya kekuatan diluar manusia normal, tatapan laser kemudian (mungkin) juga ilmu kebal yang dipelajari dari Krypton planet asalnya. Ketika Superman unjuk kekuatan, orang dengan gampang mengidentifikasi dia sebagai pahlawan super. Contoh lain, misalnya The Flash dengan super speed-nya. Wonder Women dengan super-ability yang dimilikinya. Aquaman yang bisa ngomong sama ikan hehe (ini kata Bruce Wayne di film Justice League lho). Jika orang-orang ini sedang unjuk gigi membasmi kejahatan orang dengan gampang mengidentifikasi mereka sebagai pahlawan super. Karena fitur-fitur pahlawan super ada dan terlihat mata.

Namun tidak demikian dengan Batman. Batman tidak punya kekuatan super. Kekuatan supernya adalah teknologi canggih yang dimilikinya dan mungkin kekayaan super.  Dua hal yang membuat Batman diidentifikasi menjadi pahlawan super adalah narasi bahwa membasmi kejahatan adalah cara dia untuk membalas dendam terhadap kematian orang tuanya yang menjadi korban kejahatan.

Hampir semua pahlawan super mengambil peran pahlawan setalah terdapat peristiwa traumatik yang memberi dia alasan untuk mengambil identitas pahlawan. Superman, menjadi pahlawan di bumi setelah planetnya hancur oleh perang. Akhirnya dia bertekad melindungi bumi dari nasib yang sama. Wonder women dan The Flash pun hampir sama.

Trauma ini penting sebagai alasan pahlawan super memperjuangkan keadilan. Orang yang tidak pernah mengalami trauma tidak akan pernah sadar pentingnya keadilan. Setidaknya ini yang berlaku dalam dunia pahlawan super. Lagipula tidakah aneh misalkan Bruce Wayne datang dari keluarga yang kaya, harmonis kemudian dia tanpa momen apapun yang mendefinisikan dirinya memilih menjadi pembasmi kejahatan yang berpakaian mirip kelelawar di malam hari memukuli para penjahat? Hampir tidak mungkin rasanya. Makanya jangan pernah remehkan efek traumatik dari masa lalu seseorang, diikuti saja rasa sakit traumanya. Siapa tahu anda bisa menjadi The Next Batman?

Selanjutnya yang paling krusial adalah Joker. Di dunia ini berlaku logika oposisi biner, setidaknya itu yang dapat saya simpulkan sejauh ini. Oposisi biner sederhananya begini, setiap hal yang bernilai positif pasti punya lawannya yang bernilai negatif dan vice versa. Oposisi biner ini yang membuat dunia jadi bermakna. Contohnya ada kaya ada miskin. Ada cantik ada ganteng. Ada luas ada sempit. Ada cebong ada kampret. Ada capres nomer 1 ada nomer 2. Ada government ada oposisi dst. Ada Batman ada Joker.

Bayangkan hidup di dunia yang seragam semuanya. Semua orang kaya raya misalnya. Maka kaya tidak akan ada nilainya lagi. Buat apa jadi kaya kalau juga sama-sama kaya? Kaya itu punya nilai kalau ada yang miskin. Makanya jangan menghina orang miskin. Enggak ada kita enggak ada anda yang kaya! Hehe. Cebong dan kampret juga saling hina. Kalau enggak ada cebong, enggak ada kampret, pun sebaliknya.

Kembali ke Batman. Batman tidak akan punya nilai sebagai pahlawan super jika tidak ada Joker yang menjadi oposisi binernya. Jika Batman bertindak berdasarkan good virtue yang diperoleh dari sejarah panjang, Joker adalah manifestasi dari social disorder. No reason, just enjoy killing and messing around. Tapi justru inilah yang mendefinisikan Batman sebagai pahlawan super.

Posisi Batman sebagai pahlawan super hanya dapat dikenali lewat posisi vis-a-vis dengan Joker sebagai penjahat super. Jika Joker ditiadakan Batman hanya akan menjadi orang kaya yang memakai kostum kelelewar kemudian bertindak memukuli penjahat pada malam hari tanpa kewenangan hukum yang jelas. Lebih mirip dengan gerombolan penjahat dibanding pahlawan super.

Inilah sebabnya Batman selalu dikisahkan tidak dapat secara sadar membunuh Joker, walaupun di banyak kesempatan digambarkan peluang itu terbuka. Kehilangan  Joker akan mengakibatkan disfungsi Batman sebagai individu maupun bagian dari interaksi sosial. Berbeda dengan pahlawan super lain yang menggunakan kekuatan super, cara Batman melawan kejahatan adalah dengan memperkuat identitas sebagai anak yatim piatu korban kejahatan. Dalam kerangka berpikir Batman, Joker adalah penjahat super yang menjadi tujuan akhir setiap pahlawan super. Namun di sisi lain, membunuh Joker akan menghilangkan patokan definisi identitas Batman baik sebagai pahlawan super maupun yatim piatu korban kejahatan.

Oposisi biner Batman dan Joker adalah gambaran politik Indonesia dewasa ini. Dua pihak yang saling mengklaim berbeda berebut panggung di bawah sorotan lampu utama. Keduanya berusaha mengidentifikasi dirinya berbeda dengan yang lainnya hingga pada titik dimana perbedaan yang disuguhkan hanya asal beda. Tidak seperti karakter Batman dan Joker yang kedua sama-sama mempunyai prinsip, tujuan dan cara yang jelas, politik kita sekarang hanya menyuguhkan saling serang, kebencian dan pertentangan dilevel yang tidak substansial.

Kedua pihak berebut mengisi identitas Batman, sang populis juru selamat Gotham yag tumbuh dari good virtue sebagai yatim piatu. Namun tidak ada yang mau mengisi peran Joker sebagai aktor tidak populis namun serangan-serangannya terhadap struktur masyarakat Gotham substansial dan berhasil memunculkan nilai terbaik dari Batman sebagai pahlawan super.

Makanya jangan terlalu benci, jangan-jangan kamu bukan siapa-siapa kalau enggak ada dia? Gitu ya Bong, Pret?

Dias Pabyantara

Dosen HI UPNVJT

Peneliti Gender dan Globalisasi di IR-CGAS

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