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Pilpres dari Media Sosial dan Moral Kita Hari Ini

Jika pilihan politik membuat kita jadi pembunuh, sudah saatnya kita lebih waspada. Beberapa waktu lalu, saya garuk-garuk kepala mendengar kabar tentang kematian lantaran cekcok soal pilpres. Hanya saja, peristiwa ini sempat diramalkan kawan saya yang dengan senang hati menghabiskan waktunya untuk mengamati debat orang-orang di dunia maya. Berbagai media sosial pun dijadikan ruang untuk memperlihatkan pilihan A jauh lebih baik dari B atau sebaliknya. Menurut kawan saya itu, pembunuhan bisa saja terjadi jika dirinya terbawa suasana dan tak bisa mengenali emosi yang dia rasakan.

Saya dan mungkin beberapa di antara anda, seringkali menemukan debat pilihan antara A dan B. Bukan hanya di media sosial, namun di dunia nyata pun debat demi pilihan itu dapat kita temui dengan mudah. Di keluarga misalnya, saya dan ayah saya beda pilihan dan secara tak sengaja terkadang kami berdebat panjang tanpa ujung.

Tapi setidaknya, kami masih bisa kembali pada titik pijak bahwa pilpres itu fana, yang abadi adalah netizen. Celakanya, ada yang merespon pilpres sebagai sesuatu yang mengancam hingga berani membuatnya bergerak menjadi pembunuh. Apa yang saya maksud mengancam adalah ketidakmampuannya menerima sejumlah kemungkinan. Sedangkan di dunia politik sendiri, berbagai ketidakpastian malah mencuat setiap waktu.

Hal berbahaya dalam debat pilpres adalah hilangnya akal sehat para pendukung. Hasrat besar untuk mendukung mampu menutupi kesadaran kita. Tanpa disadari, kita mampu melakukan atau mengatakan apa saja demi mendukung dan memperlihatkan kekuatan kandidat tersebut. Mungkin anda juga memiliki seorang kawan seperti yang saya miliki. Mereka yang dengan senang hati memilih menikmati waktu luang dengan mengamati perkembangan perdebatan itu. Mungkin saja, berawal dari satu pembunuhan, akan lahir pembunuhan lainnya. Mungkin.

Tanpa bermaksud untuk berburuk sangka, melainkan inilah langkah dalam memikirkan hal terburuk demi menemukan sesuatu yang semestinya penting untuk dicari. Apakah benar adanya jika seorang akan kembali menjadi seorang pembunuh demi pilpres? Tentu saja kita akan menemukannya jika tak segera belajar dari kematian kemarin.

Kematian yang awalnya timbul dari sebuah unggahan di facebook. Masalah ini membuat saya terbawa pada sebuah penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Molly Crockett. Penelitian yang mempelajari keputusan moral pada sebuah masyarakat. Fokus penelitian tersebut diarahkan pada kemarahan moral yang diungkapkan melalui media sosial. Penelitian itu memperlihatkan scan gambaran otak pada mereka yang menyuarakan kemarahannya di media sosial, membuat bagian otak reward center menjadi aktif. Pada titik itu, kepuasan serta rasa senang meningkat sehingga Molly menjelaskan jika perilaku tersebut sulit dibendung. Di dunia maya, jauh lebih banyak hal yang membawa kita pada kemarahan moral dan secara tidak langsung membawa kita pada kondisi yang mengerikan.

William J. Brady bersama koleganya dari New York University pun mempublikasikan penelitian yang berjudul Emotion shapes the diffusion of moralized content in social networks. Sudah menjadi hal yang pasti bahwa dalam media sosial, dapat terbentuk “moral contagion” Kondisi ketika konsep atau pandangan moral dengan mudah tersebar dan menyulut emosi seseorang.

Mereka akan tenggelam dengan suasana tersebut dan sulit mengontrol diri sendiri. Kiranya, itulah yang terjadi pada beberapa orang yang terbawa derasnya arus politik. Perubahan perilaku seseoang menjadi jahat atau kejam dapat dijelaskan dengan beragam teori emosi dalam lingkup psikologi.

Salah satu pembahasan terkait kasus ini tentu saja dapat kita telaah dari buku Philip Zimbardo yang berjudul The Lucifer Effect, di buku itu banyak membahas mengenai transformasi moral seseorang yang dapat dikendalikan oleh kondisi diri, situasi dan sistem kekuasaan, bagaimana orang baik dapat berubah menjadi jahat. Sederhananya, seseorang bisa berubah ketika tidak mampu memahami kondisi. Di luar dari itu semua, ada banyak hal yang sulit ditentukan serta dijelaskan secara pasti.

Hanya saja, kesenangan berdebat di media sosial patut diimbangi dengan kewarasan utuh. Elit politik mungkin tak sebaik dan seburuk yang kita duga. Bisa saja, mereka lebih buruk dari yang buruk yang kita bayangkan. Berada pada situasi perang debat di media sosial, sekiranya membawa kita pada titik untuk belajar mengedepankan pikiran dibanding perasaan semata. Sedari dini, kita penting untuk curiga pada diri sendiri, perihal keputusan kita memilih apakah muncul dari proses nalar atau terbawa suasana media sosial yang menyebar. Selanjutnya, kita lihat bagaimana reaksi orang-orang yang didukung pada mereka yang membunuh dan terbunuh?

Wawan Kurniawan

Alumni Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Negeri Makassar. Menulis puisi, cerpen, esai dan menerjemahkan. Buku puisinya yang sudah terbit antara lain Persinggahan Perangai Sepi (2013) dan Sajak Penghuni Surga (2017). Buku esai pertama, Sepi Manusia Topeng (2017). Saat ini masih menetap di Makassar. Twitter: @wkhatulistiwa

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Tentang Penulis

Wawan Kurniawan

Alumni Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Negeri Makassar. Menulis puisi, cerpen, esai dan menerjemahkan. Buku puisinya yang sudah terbit antara lain Persinggahan Perangai Sepi (2013) dan Sajak Penghuni Surga (2017). Buku esai pertama, Sepi Manusia Topeng (2017). Saat ini masih menetap di Makassar. Twitter: @wkhatulistiwa

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