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Persekusi, Budaya Indonesia Jaman Now

Ilustrasi (sumber: edutopia)

APAKAH kekerasan telah menjadi budaya bangsa? Ini menjadi pertanyaan krusial yang mungkin ada di kepala setiap warga dalam melihat fenomena kekerasan berjamaah yang terjadi hampir di setiap ruang bangsa kita.

Ironis melihat kekerasan menjadi legitimasi pembelaan mereka sehingga seakan-akan mengajak orang lain untuk lazim dan mafhum dengan budaya persekusi dan membuat hina orang lain, tidak boleh ada kompromi yang ada keabsahan atas tindakan mereka tanpa memikirkan akibat apa yang timbul nantinya.

Masyarakat yang seharusnya modern, bermoral dan berakal kembali berubah menjadi “vandalisme barbarian”, seakan lupa bahwa ada instusi dan aparat penegak hukum yang berwenang.

Tindakan main hakim sendiri atau lebih dikenal dengan persekusi dalam Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia adalah “Pemburuan sewenang-wenang terhadap seseorang atau sejumlah warga yang kemudian disakiti, dipersusah, atau ditumpas”. Bahkan dalam Pasal 7.1 Statuta Roma, ”persekusi terhadap suatu kelompok dianggap sebagai salah satu bentuk kejahatan terhadap kemanusiaan”.

Dan faktanya perbuatan tersebut banyak terjadi tanpa dilandasi kewenangan hukum dan hanya mengutamakan nafsu amarah belaka, istilahnya “hantam dulu urusan belakangan”. Seperti tindakan main hakim sendiri di Indonesia dikenal secara umum oleh masyarakat yaitu perbuatan sekelompok orang yang kebetulan memergoki terjadinya suatu perbuatan tindak pidana. Warga tersebut bertindak dengan mengejar, menangkap, menganiaya, bisa dengan memukul, menendang, menampar sampai membunuhnya.

Bahkan dalam beberapa kasus korban persekusi “ditelanjangi”, kehilangan pekerjaan, dan di-bully habis-habisan. Tindakan inipun bisa digolongkan dalam anarkisme dimana tidak boleh ada hal yang benar selain tindakan mereka sendiri.

Persekusi di era sekarang melenggang masuk di ranah digital, unggahan gambar, video, potongan kalimat disebar dan diarak di linimasa beranda media sosial, sehingga aib korban persekusi menjadi tontonan viral dan di konsumsi setiap penikmat media sosial, tidak berhenti sampai disitu korban persekusi kemudian di-intimidasi sedemikian rupa, bahkan diburu dan menjadi target sekelompok orang. Ini jelas pelanggaran privasi dan bentuk vonis terhadap orang lain tanpa melalui proses hukum.

Negara seharusnya tidak boleh menolerir setiap tindakan persekusi kepada siapapun dengan tidak membedakan latar belakang mereka. Jika setiap tindakan persekusi dibiarkan maka akan terbangun stigma negatif dan ketidakpercayaan publik terhadap negara dan penegakan hukum karena anggapan masalah bisa diselesaikan dengan cara mereka sendiri dengan mengabaikan aturan dan hukum yang berlaku.

Korban merasa tidak aman hidup di lingkungan bahkan di negara mereka sendiri, dan hukum dianggap menjadi lemah dan tidak berdaya jika berhadapan dengan segerombolan warga yang bertindak semaunya.

Lalu dimana pengawasan dan tanggung jawab negara dalam melindungi hak dan privasi warga negaranya? Negara kita adalah negara hukum yang menjamin keamanan, ketertiban umum, dan memberi perlindungan kepada setiap warganya. Konsistensi penegakan hukum harus ditunjukkan dan dibuktikan kepada setiap elemen masyarakat melalui penerapan hukum materil dan hukum formil.

Persekusi atau tindakan main hakim sendiri (eigenrichting), sebenarnya bukan merupakan suatu jenis tindak pidana yang diatur secara jelas dan tegas dalam KUHP atau undang-undang diluar KUHP, akan tetapi akibat dari perbuatan persekusi dapat masuk kedalam beberapa jenis tindak pidana, yang berujung pada tindakan kurang menyenangkan, pengancaman, penganiayaan, hingga penculikan yang secara lugas dijelaskan dalam Buku II tentang Kejahatan di KUHP.

Tindakan ini bertentangan dengan asas praduga tak bersalah (presumption of innocence), sehingga korban persekusi tidak bisa dihukumi bersalah atau tidak sebelum melalui proses peradilan dan putusan hakim.

Oleh karena itu diperlukan upaya serius dari penegak hukum untuk mencegah dan mengantisipasi tindakan persekusi tersebut secara cepat, tegas dan adil. Aparat penegak hukum diharapkan segera membenahi diri dan institusi untuk kembali meraih kepercayaan masyarakat dalam proses penegakan hukum.

Masyarakat juga harus cerdas dan tidak seharusnya mudah terprovokasi dengan kejadian di sekitarnya, jika perlu masyarakat mengambil inisiatif untuk melaporkan ke aparat penegak hukum jika mendapatkan oknum ataupun akun yang melakukan provokasi dan menjurus kepada persekusi.

 

Hijriani Hadz

akademisi hukum, tinggal di Kendari

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Hijriani Hadz

akademisi hukum, tinggal di Kendari

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