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Misteri Hadis 200 Tahun: Abu Janda Vs Felix Siauw

Ilustrasi (Sumber foto: islamion.com)

Selebriti media sosial, Abu “Permadi” Janda (APJ), tiba-tiba mengagetkan banyak orang yang menyaksikan tayangan ILC TVOne, Senin (5/12/2017) lalu. Ia menyebut angka 200 tahun menyangkut penulisan awal kodifikasi hadis. Saat merespon argumentasi Felix Siauw terkait bendera/panji Islam, al-Liwa  dan ar-Rayah, APJ tampak ingin mematahkannya. Bahwa terdapat problem akurasi penulisan hadis, yang baru terkodifikasi sekitar 150- 200 tahun setelah Nabi wafat.

Sayangnya, APJ tidak punya kesempatan menjelaskannya lebih detail di forum tersebut. Lelaki ini makin tersudut saat Prof. Mahfud MD  (MMD) mengingatkannya agar berhati-hati dengan statement 200 tahun itu, karena bisa membuat orang marah.

Beberapa hari kemudian, setelah mendapat kecaman hebat di medsos, APJ merasa perlu mengunjungi salah seorang Habib di Jawa Barat. Nampaknya ia ingin menjernihkan masalah ini. Misteri apa yang sesungguhnya ingin dibuka APJ menyangkut klaim 200 tahun ini?

Saya tertarik menelisiknya lebih jauh. Bagi saya, sinyalemen APJ ini bermakna sangat dalam. Begitu dalamnya hingga MMD merasa perlu menanggapinya secara emosional dengan mengatakan pandangan APJ bertentangan dengan pandangan pesantren.

Pertanyaan hipotesis yang sepertinya ingin diajukan APJ kira-kira demikian: jika ada peristiwa hari ini namun laporannya ditulis 150-200 tahun mendatang, sejauh mana akurasi pemberitaannya?

Dalam pandangan saya, APJ sebenarnya ingin mendorong semua pihak berfikir kembali dengan nalar kritis. Nalar yang kerap diharamkan ketika berhadapan dengan teks agama.

Dalam teori riak air, semakin jauh dari pusat riak, sebuah gelombang akan semakin kecil dan habis. Cara berfikir ini bisa diimplementasikan dalam berbagai studi, termasuk sejarah hadis.

Zubayr Siddiqi dalam salah satu karyanya, Hadith Literature: Its Origin, Development And Special Features, membeberkan secara benderang sejarah hadis yang diwarnai berbagai praktek tidak terpuji, fabrikasi hadis. Praktek ini barangkali yang membuat al-Zurqani (w. 1710) menyatakan bahwa Kitab al-Muwatta’ milik Imam Malik (w. 793), kitab kodifikasi hadis paling awal, hanya memilih ratusan hadis dari sekitar 4.000 – 10.000 yang ia kumpulkan.

Pemalsuan ini memang tidak bisa dilepaskan dari kuatnya sosok agung dan pengaruh Nabi Muhammad. Hal ini saya yakini menggoda banyak pihak untuk membawa-bawa figur ini sebagai legitimasi.

Ibnu Hazm, sebagaimana dikutip Siddiqi dari al-Dhahabi (w. 1348 M), menyatakan pemalsuan otoritas Nabi pertama kali berlangsung di Madinah, saat Nabi masih hidup. Saat itu ada lelaki yang datang ke salah satu suku mengaku mendapat mandat dari Nabi. Kabarnya, dia berbuat demikian karena tengah mengincar perempuan dari suku tersebut. Saat dikonfirmasi langsung oleh salah satu elit suku, Nabi membantah dirinya telah memberikan otoritas tersebut.

Ketika kekuasaan Islam berada ditangan Abu Bakar dan Umar, pemalsuan hadis yang dilakukan oleh orang murtad meningkat. Itu sebab keduanya sangat selektif terhadap hadis. Abu Bakar dikabarkan pernah membakar 500 hadis yang dianggapnya bermasalah.

Booming hadis abal-abal semakin menggila pasca meninggalnya khalifah ketiga, Utsman bin Affan. Hal ini disebabkan tajamnya fragmentasi umat Islam seiring menguatnya konfrontasi politik sebagai akibat perpecahan di internal umat Islam. Perpecahan ini terus awet sebagai konsekuensi gagalnya Ali bersikap tegas terhadap para pelaku pembunuh Utsman. Ini skisma terbesar umat Islam yang dampaknya masih terasa hingga kini, yakni ketegangan dua raksasa Islam, Sunni  dan Syiah.

Perpecahan ini tidak hanya menjalari hukum Islam, namun juga merangsek filsafat, teologi dan aspek lainnya. Dalam konteks ini, hadis menjadi perangkat penting pertikaian, terutama untuk mengunggulkan  kelompoknya sekaligus menjatuhkan lawan politiknya.

Begitu “produktifnya” hadis mengalami pembiakan, Dr Mahatir Mohammad pernah menyatakan bahwa Bukhari, yang hidup 200-an tahun setelah Nabi wafat, telah mengumpulkan lebih dari 600.000 hadis. Dari ratusan ribu tersebut, dia hanya memilih sekitar 7000-an saja untuk dikumpulkan dalam kitab Sahih yang dianggap sangat otoritatif di kalangan Sunni. Itu pun, setelah disinkronisasi agar tidak terjadi duplikasi, jumlahnya menciut jadi 2712 hadis.

Catatan dari al-Amini dalam al-Ghadeer vol. 5 sungguh menarik. Menurutnya, hingga tahun 200 Hijriah (1858 Masehi), dari total 600.000 hadis, sebanyak 408.324 dianggap hasil fabrikasi oleh 620 pemalsu.

Saya tidak terlaku yakin semua muslim Indonesia tahu mengenai sejarah gelap pemalsuan hadis. Sejarah ini nampak dikunci rapat. Tidak banyak yang tahu karena bersifat tabu. Egoisme peradaban Islam kontemporer telah sedemikian tingginya hingga memaksa banyak orang merasa jengah jika ada pihak yang mulai mengingatkan soal ini. Alih-alih memberikan ruang diskusi yang nyaman, APJ malah dirisak sedemikian rupa di media sosial.

Saya setuju dengan MMD bahwa hadis yang digunakan, salah satunya oleh kalangan pesantren, telah mengalami proses filterisasi sangat ketat. Dalam pandangan saya, ini sekaligus meneguhkan keberadaan hadis-hadis lain yang bermasalah (sehingga perlu difilter).

Di luar ketelitian maha hebat yang pernah dilakukan Bukhari maupun Muslim, perkembangan kritik-hadis era kontemporer malah menunjukkan perkembangan yang mengejutkan. Adalah Jamal al-Banna, sarjana Mesir adik Hasan al-Banna pendiri Ikhwanul Muslimin, yang berani melakukan kritik secara terbuka terhadap dua kitab hadis paling otoritatif di kalangan Sunni, Sahih Bukhari dan Sahih Muslim.

Melalui karyanya yang diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Inggris, The Cleansing of Bukhari and Muslim from Useless Hadiths, Jamal menilai terdapat 653 hadis bermasalah di dua kitab tersebut. Hadis-hadis tersebut, menurutnya, berkisar tentang hal-hal yang merendahkan martabat perempuan, membelenggu kemerdekaan beragama dan keharaman berpindah dari Islam (murtad), pemaksaan masuk Islam dan penggunaan kekerasan atas nama agama, keajaiban mukjizat Nabi serta cerita-cerita yang tidak logis (Pierce 2012).

Sebelum Jamal, ada juga nama Zakaria Ouzon yang  mengeluarkan trilogi karya kritiknya terhadap Bukhari, Muslim dan Imam Sibawaih. Salah satu judulnya cukup kontroversial, Jinayat al-Bukhari: Inqadz al-Ummah min Imam al-Muhadditsin -Kejahatan al-Bukhari: Menyelamatkan Umat dari Penghulu Para Ahli Hadis (Novrianto 2008).

Quo Vadis Hadis?

Skandal 200 tahun di ILC telah menggiring semua muslim untuk merenung secara serius saat berhadapan dengan sumber hukum Islam ini.  Hemat saya, dalam hal ini kita setidaknya memiliki tiga pilihan: mengamini mentah-mentah apapun yang dianggap sebagai hadis dan menggunakannya untuk mengcopy-paste masa lalu ke saat ini (model revivalis-salafis); meletakkan hadis dalam konteks lebih luas sesuai semangat substantif Islam (model rekonstruksionis-reformis); atau menganggap hadis sebagai “anak dari zamannya” yang belum tentu dapat dipakai dengan ukuran saat ini (model dekonstruksionis-kritis).

Sekarang ini, banyak organisasi Islam seperti kroni-kroni HTI, telah sedemikian terobsesi mengubah Indonesia menjadi khilafah Islam. Di sisi lain, MMD, APJ, NU dan lainnya, secara tegas menolak. Kedua kubu sama-sama mengklaim punya justifikasi hadis. Mana yang benar? Waktu yang akan menguji. Wallahu a’lam.

Aan Anshori

Aan Anshori

Kordinator Jaringan Islam Antidiskriminasi (JIAD), tengah nyantri di S2 Hukum Keluarga Islam Univ. Hasyim Asy'ari Tebuireng Jombang, twitter @aananshori

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Tentang Penulis

Aan Anshori

Aan Anshori

Kordinator Jaringan Islam Antidiskriminasi (JIAD), tengah nyantri di S2 Hukum Keluarga Islam Univ. Hasyim Asy'ari Tebuireng Jombang, twitter @aananshori

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