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Menikmati Tubuh Perempuan

Ilustrasi (Sumber foto: buzznet.com)

IN a world ordered by sexual imbalance, pleasure in looking has been split between active/male and passive/female. The determining male gaze projects its fantasy onto the female figure, which is styled accordingly” – Laura Mulvey dalam Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema.

Sejak zaman sinema klasik Hollywood, perempuan dalam film hanyalah sebagai ikon. Perempuan dijadikan objek erotis untuk pria. Sinema klasik Hollywood dibuat untuk mengangkat ego pria dan menekan hasrat alami perempuan. Perempuan dilarang untuk memiliki hasrat pada objek atau lebih tepatnya dilarang menjadikan pria sebagai objek mereka. Pria dalam film Hollywood merupakan bentuk representasi atas kekuasaan itu sendiri.

Laura Mulvey dalam konsepnya mengenai sinema dan kenikmatan visual menyatakan bahwa visualitas terstruktur secara gender. Ada pola yang telah dibentuk untuk menampilkan tubuh pria dan perempuan. Tubuh perempuan selalu diposisikan sebagai sesuatu yang dilihat dan ditampilkan. Mereka ditampilkan dengan kode visual yang kuat dengan menunjukkan keseksian atau erotisme.

Dalam visualisasi video klip Stars and Rabbit yang berjudul The House, tubuh perempuan ditampilkan seksi dengan pakaian yang minim. Perempuan dihadirkan dengan mengenakan busana lingerie berwarna hitam yang menunjukkan bagian paha dan pundak perempuan.

Bahkan dalam adegan lain, saat mengenakan lingerie berwarna putih, bagian tubuh yang ditunjukkan hingga pangkal paha tepatnya saat tenggelam ke dalam air. Proses ini oleh Mulvey disebut sebagai scopophilia dimana tubuh perempuan diobjektifikasi, dikontrol dan ditundukkan sebagai pemuas kenikmatan.

Scopophilia voyeuristic ini selanjutnya akan menciptakan suasana yang privat dalam pikiran penonton. “Their desire to see and make sure of the private and forbidden curiosity about other people’s genital and bodily functions,” sebut Mulvey.

Penonton mengidentifikasikan kamera sebagai diri mereka, sehingga ia memperoleh kenikmatan saat memandang objek (perempuan). Dengan schopophilia, penonton seolah-olah memiliki kuasa atau kendali atas apa yang mereka lihat dalam layar.

Ketika sang penonton merupakan pria, ia akan meminjam lensa kamera sebagai bentuk identifikasi akan dirinya. Ia akan mengibaratkan dirinya memandang model perempuan dalam video klip tersebut. Tetapi ketika penontonnya adalah perempuan, mereka akan diobjektifikasi karena menjadikan model perempuan dalam video klip tersebut sebagai cerminan untuk mengidentifikasi dirinya. Visualisasi tersebut akhirnya membentuk sebuah relasi kuasa active/male dan passive/female.

Mulvey menyebutkan bahwa penonton pria menjadi subjek yang melihat dan perempuan menjadi objek yang dikuasai. Hal ini meneguhkan konsep bawah sadar tradisional yang menunjukan peran eksibisionis perempuan sebagai looked at dan displayed. Kehadiran perempuan dalam kode-kode visual dan erotis yang kuat membuat konstruksi perempuan dibentuk sebagai to-be-looked-at-ness.

Kenikmatan visual di video klip “Untuk Perempuan Yang Sedang Dalam Pelukan” (Payung Teduh) yang dibuat oleh Bina Sarana Informatika (BSI) ditawarkan dengan sesuatu yang berbeda. Ia tidak menunjukkan erotisme dengan pakaian yang minim ala lingerie tapi menampilkan sosok perempuan berambut panjang dan berpakaian dress serba putih. Bagian pundak tetap tertutup dan pun pada bagian dada menutup ke bawah hingga lutut.

Pengambilan gambar hanya memfokuskan pada bagian wajah perempuan dengan mode close-up untuk menangkap ekspresi senyum dari model perempuan tersebut. Kendati begitu, perempuan dalam video klip ini tetap saja dipandang sebagai objek yang pasif hasrat oleh penonton yang mewakili mata pria.

Perilaku penonton yang lain dinamakan narcissistic identification yang disebabkan oleh kebutuhan yang berasal dari ego. Penonton akan mengidentifikasikan dirinya dengan tokoh utama pria, seperti yang ada dalam video klip lagu Payung Teduh tersebut.

Melalui identifikasi ini, penonton pria seolah-olah mendapatkan kendali penuh atas pemeran perempuan dan aksi yang terdapat pada video klip. Pria sebagai figur yang aktif, membutuhkan perilaku narcissistic identification untuk mengontrol fantasi-fantasi mereka atas perempuan yang pada akhirnya akan dipuaskan oleh video klip yang mereka nikmati.

Namun kehadiran perempuan dalam sebuah scene tidak selamanya jadi objek seksual semata. Mulvey menyebut sosok sinematik perempuan itu paradoksal karena memiliki dua peran yang ambivalen. Yakni sebagai objek kesenangan seksual voyeuristic sekaligus menjadi reminder akan adanya kastrasi.

But in psychoanalytic terms, the female figures poses a deeper problem. She also connotes something that the look continually circles around but disavows: her lack of penis, implying a threat of castration and hence unpleasure. … Thus the woman as icon, displayed for the gaze and enjoyment of men, the active controller of the look, always threatens to evoke the anxiety it originally signified,” sebut Mulvey.

Dia menggabungkan daya tarik dengan bermain pada ketakutan mendalam akan pengebirian. Alam bawah sadar laki-laki memiliki dua cara untuk melepaskan ketakutannya akan kastrasi. Salah satunya adalah demistifikasi sosok perempuan yaitu membongkar misterinya (dalam video klip: figur perempuan menunggu lalu didatangi oleh sosok laki-laki).

Selain itu cara lain yaitu melalui fetisisme objek atau juga disebut fetishistic scopophilia. Perempuan dijadikan objek keindahan, “builds up the physical beauty of the object, transforming it into something satisfying in itself.

Perempuan yang menandakan kastrasi digambarkan sebagai objek kecantikan yang melimpah sehingga penandaan akan kastrasi dikalahkan oleh kecantikan wanita tersebut. Fokus utama ialah pada tampilan visual (looks). Mulvey menyebutkan di sisi lain, fetishistic scopophilia di saat bersamaan bisa ada karena naluri erotis difokuskan pada tampilan saja.

Pada video klip ini kita bisa melihat penggunaan perempuan sebagai moda fetisisme objek untuk mengurangi kastrasi. Dua video klip tersebut sama-sama menonjolkan kecantikan perempuan untuk menutupi kastrasi yang dirasakan perempuan. Keduanya juga berusaha mengatasi ketegangan yang terjadi pada pria yaitu antara tertarik pada wanita dan takut padanya.

Oleh karena itu mereka menyediakan kebutuhan visual akan bentuk keinginan maskulin. Selain itu, metode seperti ini juga sering kita jumpai dalam pembuatan film dan karya visual lainnya seperti fotografi.

khairil anwar

penulis pemula

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