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Korupsi Soeharto Itu Nyata

Ilustrasi (Sumber gambar: Merdeka.com)

Soeharto berkuasa selama 32 tahun lamanya. Selama berkuasa, Soeharto mengendalikan segenap infrastruktur politik dan lembaga negara. Di tangannya, nyaris tak ada perimbangan kekuasaan dan check and balanced. Semua terpusat pada dirinya. Bahkan hampir tak ada perbedaan antara dirinya dengan kekuasaan formal negara, antara titah pribadinya dengan kebijakan resmi negara. Sosok dirinya mewujud menjadi kekuasaan negara. Ia menjadi satu-satunya jantung kekuasaan, dan subjek tunggal segala pranata ketatanegaraan berpusat.

Segala kritik dibungkam, upaya pengawasan dan kontrol dikebiri. Segala gelagat ketakpatuhan dimatikan. Tak ada ruang untuk koreksi. Semua ibarat hirarki yang homogen. Dari kondisi inilah, korupsi itu bermula. Dimana kekuasaan tak lagi dikontrol dan menjadi milik pribadi. Dari sini pula Soeharto membagi harta negara kepada sanak famili dan rekan terdekatnya. Untuk membagi harta negara, Soeharto mendirikan banyak yayasan. Diantaranya yang kita kenal adalah yayasan Supersemar.

Di atas kertas, misi yayasan ini untuk membantu siswa tak mampu membiayai sekolahnya namun berbakat dan berprestasi. Soeharto pun mengeluarkan Peraturan Nomor 15 Tahun 1976, yang didalamnya mewajibkan semua bank BUMN menyisihkan 2,5 persen laba bersihnya untuk yayasan yang ia dirikan. Namun lewat yayasan ini, Soeharto membagi harta negara kepada sanak famili dan kroninya.

Total harta negara yang dihimpun lewat peraturan pemerintah tersebut yakni US$ 240 juta dan Rp. 185 miliar. Uang ini ditransfer kepada PT. Sempati Air milik Tommy Soeharto, PT Kiani Sakti dan Lestari milik Bob Hassan, Kelompok usaha Kosgoro dan penerima paling besar; Bank Duta sekitar US$ 420 juta.

Yayasan ini dideklarasikan sebagai lembaga sosial, untuk membantu orang miskin, sehingga bebas dari pajak. Namun faktanya, yayasan Supersemar menggunakan 84 persen dananya untuk keperluan bisnis, semisal pinjaman lunak kepada perusahaan yang dimiliki anak dan kroni Soeharto. Dengan cara ini, Soeharto mencaplok perusahaan-perusahaan mapan yang bergerak di bisnis strategis, seperti perbankan, konstruksi dan makanan. Menurut majalah Time, Suharto menguasai 3.6 juta hektar lahan, termasuk 40% wilayah Timor Leste.

Selain melalui yayasan, Soeharto juga mengumpulkan kekayaan melalui monopoli. Melalui teman dekatnya; Bob Hassan, Soeharto memonopoli perdagangan kayu lewat  Asosiasi Panel Kayu Indonesia (APKINDO). Soeharto juga menjalankan monopoli tepung melalui P.T. Bogasari bersama Sudomo Salim alias Liem Sioe Liong, dan sebesar 26 persen keuntungan dari monopoli tepung tersebut disalurkan ke Yayasan Harapan Kita milik Ibu Tien Soeharto dan Yayasan Dharma Putra milik Kostrad.

Bukan hanya tepung yang jadi mesin uang Soeharto, panasnya minyak Pertamina di era Suharto juga pernah menjelma menjadi dompet raksasa keluarga Cendana. Sejak awal sang diktatur sudah menempatkan orang kepercayaannya, Ibnu Sutowo, buat memimpin perusahaan pelat merah tersebut. Sutowo kemudian memberikan kesaksian kepada majalah Time, bahwa pada tahun 1976 ia dipaksa menjual minyak ke Jepang dan menilap 0,10 Dollar AS untuk setiap barrel minyak yang diekspor.

Badan Urusan Logistik (Bulog) ditangan Soeharto juga pernah menjadi sapi perah keluarga Cendana. Menurut catatan Tempo, selama 18 tahun kroni Suharto mengimpor bahan pangan lewat Bulog senilai 5 miliar Dollar AS. Selain itu Tommy juga menguasai Badan Penyangga dan Pemasaran Cengkeh (BPPC) yang memonopoli penuh pembelian dan penjualan cengkeh dari petani ke produsen rokok. BPPC menjadi semacam VOC, yang meraup keuntungan dengan berperan sebagai middle-man.

BPPC memaksakan secara sepihak harga beli bahan utama rokok kretek dari petani. Celakanya, petani tak bisa menjual cengkehnya secara langsung ke pabrik rokok atau ke pihak lain di luar BPPC. Harga cengkehpun anjlok. Dan tak terhitung petani cengkeh yang jatuh miskin gara-gara monopoli BPPC. ICW mencatat BPPC menyelewengkan dana pungutan petani cengkeh hingga 1,4 trilyun rupiah.

Keluarga Cendana juga menguasai puluhan ribu hektar lahan sawit, stasiun televisi TPI dan 14 persen saham di Bank Central Asia hingga memanen harta tak terhingga lewat bisnis jalan tol. Semua ini membuat distingsi antara “Yang Publik” dan “Yang Privat” itu kabur. Dalam bahasa Aristoteles, perbedaan antara oikos (privat, keluarga) dan polis (publik, politik) menjadi tak tampak.

Kekuasaan Negara (wilayah polis) yang seharusnya dijalankan dengan logic of goodness namun justru dijalankan dengan logic of survival, untuk memperkaya diri dan sanak famili. Dan ketika struktur kekuasaan di ranah oikos berekspansi lalu menganeksasi wilayah polis, ia merusak dan membusukkan keagungan polis. Orang tak lagi percaya dengan proses politik yang berjalan. Bahkan lambat laun masyarakat menjauh dan dijauhkan dari proses politik.

Namun apapun itu, korupsi Soeharto telah menjalar menjadi endemik. Walau ia dinobatkan sebagai “bapak pembangunan”, akan tetapi ia banyak mencaplok kue pembangunan. Ia bak elit predator. Hingga hasil pembangunan tak menetes ke bawah. Namun lari ke kantong sanak famili dan para kroni.

Arjuna Putra Aldino

Mahasiswa Pascasarjana, Sekolah Kajian Stratejik dan Global, Universitas Indonesia

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Tentang Penulis

Arjuna Putra Aldino

Mahasiswa Pascasarjana, Sekolah Kajian Stratejik dan Global, Universitas Indonesia

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