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Kekaburan Wilayah Politik

Ilustrasi (Sumber foto: thepolitic.org)

WILAYAH politik saat ini sudah terlihat jelas kekaburannya. Kita sebagai pembaca juga merasakan hal tersebut. Kadang kita menemukan teman kita yang bersikeras membawa ideologi politiknya secara tak sadar. Yang parah justru seseorang yang mengeluarkan ideologi politiknya secara terang-terangan tanpa memikirkan dampak jangka panjangnya.

Sokrates dan Kehidupan Politik

Kekaburan wilayah politik sudah dimulai sejak Sokrates terkena dakwaan dan disidang oleh rakyat Athena, Yunani. Menariknya Sokrates menyadari bahwa kebijaksanaan itu adalah sia-sia dalam politik. Namun, semangatnya Sokrates masih hidup dalam menyiarkan betapa petingnya kebijaksanaannya itu. Alhasil, dia disidang karena telah menodai kaum pemuda dengan doktrin kebijaksanaannya.

Ada dua hal yang berlawanan di era demokrasi Sokrates, yakni kebebasan berpendapat dan kehidupan politik. Ini yang menurut penulis menjadi kekaburan di dalam wilayah politik, sekaligus sangat ambigu. Ketika kita menyebarkan apa yang kita yakini itu benar, seperti filsafat, sampai mana batasan kita dalam menyuarakannya.

Ada juga analogi Sokrates tentang kekaburan ini. Di dalam School of Life ( cek di youtube.com), sangat menggambarkan ini. Terdapat dua orang untuk dipilih dalam memimpin mereka (para calon pemilih) nantinya. Dua orang tersebut ialah seorang dokter, dan seorang pemilik toko manisan. Mereka menyuarakan diri mereka masing-masing. Yang tentunya akan berat sebelah, dan dimenangkan oleh si pemilik toko manisan tersebut.

Dia sudah tahu bagaimana mencari pelanggan dan juga menarik mereka sebagai pemilihnya. Yang mungkin lebih parahnya lagi ketika si pemilik toko ini akan menjelek-jelekkan si dokter tersebut bahwa apa yang dokter lakukan akan selalu sakit awalnya. Padahal itu demi kebaikan calon pemilih itu sendiri.

Jika kita mengaitkan hal ini dengan realitas kekinian, kita akan menemukan beberapa hal yang sama. Misalnya para partai politik akan sibuk seperti pemilik toko tersebut agar bagaimana orang percaya dengan daya tarik yang dimiliki parpol tersebut. Bahkan yang lebih menariknya lagi ada yang menyuarakan diri mereka sendiri tanpa dukungan partai politik apa pun. Apakah memang sebaiknya tidak ada partai, dan yang ada hanya beberapa calon pemimpin?

Apakah Tulisan Juga Termasuk Wilayah Pengaburan?

Pertanyaan ini juga menarik bagi penulis. Kita sebagai pembaca tentunya mengalami kekuatan politik ini apalagi dengan adanya ujaran kebencian di beranda akun media sosial kita.

Paul Ricouer, salah satu seorang hermeneutika, dalam bukunya Teori Interpretasi, menggambarkan mengapa tulisan itu begitu kabur. Pertama, tulisan akan menghilangkan bahasa praktis seperti suara dan gerak gerik badan. Ini menjadi kekaburan yang sangat terlihat di media sosial  saat ini. Sebagian orang bisa marah hanya dengan tulisan yang dibagikan.

Menurut Michel Foucault, hal itu merupakan bagian dari wacana, tapi wacana bukanlah sesuatu yang real. Bagi Michel Foucault, di dunia ini yang berlangsung hanyalah interpretasi. Wacana akan berbeda dari fakta. Itulah sebabnya mengapa Michel Foucault sangat terkenal dengan ilmu wacananya. Karena di dalam wacana, ada kekuasaan tertentu yang sedang berlangsung.

Kedua, tulisan tidak memiliki lawan bicara. Ini berarti ketika kita menulis dan dilihat oleh semua orang, apa yang kita tulis itu sudah masuk ruang publik. Berbeda pada saat kita berdialog. Saat kita berbicara, lawan bicara kita sudah jelas sehingga pesannya mudah sampai.

Namun, dalam dunia tulisan, kita harus berhati-hati. Tulisan tidak memiliki lawan bicara. Ini biasanya dipakai oleh media massa yang sering digunakan oleh kepentingan partai tertentu. Mereka memberitakan apa yang seharusnya real akan tetapi karena sifat tulisan yang mengaburkan lawan bicaranya, mereka yang bias akan menyalahgunakannya.

Feminisme

Gerakan kaum wanita tentunya sangat jarang dibahas di media-media sosial. Namun, kalau kita mengkaji gerakan wanita ini akan lebih jelas memperlihatkan kekaburan wilayah politik. Misalnya suara wanita akan berhenti di wilayah privat. Wilayah privat yang dimaksud di sini adalah seperti keluarga. Inilah alasannya mengapa kebanyakan suara wanita terhenti dalam ruang domestik, sehingga kerap kali kekerasan terhadap wanita jarang terdeteksi. Feminisme tentunya akan menyuarakan suara wanita agar terlepas dari wilayah privat ini.

Di dalam dunia politik, akan terlihat jelas gambaran besar dari contoh gerakan feminisme. Di Athena dulu pada zaman Sokrates, dikotomi privat dan publik terlihat jelas, apalagi pada saat pemilihan umum. Pada saat pemilu mereka wajib memilih, tapi tidak ada kaitannya dengan privat.

Nah, dengan adanya suara feminisme, privat dan publik menjadi kabur dalam wilayah politik. Bisa dikatakan situasi privat sudah terpublikkan. Namun yang lebih jelas, kebebasan individu semakin dijaga di dalam wilayah politik walaupun itu mungkin mengaburkan kedua wilayah tersebut, privat dan publik.

Ketiga indikasi di atas telah memperlihatkan bahwa wilayah politik makin kabur di era ini, baik itu dimulai dengan kebijaksanaan ala Sokrates, maupun ide Paul Ricouer tentang tulisan, dan juga gerakan Feminisme yang sangat radikal dalam menjelaskan perbedaan wilayah publik dan privat.

Sardjito Ibnuqoyyim

Hanya seorang buruh sekolah

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Sardjito Ibnuqoyyim

Hanya seorang buruh sekolah

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