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Kartini Menulis Bukan Pamer Kebaya

Tanggal  21 April menjadi salah satu tanggal yang dinantikan para penyedia jasa sewa kebaya. Betapa tidak, pada tanggal ini serentak dilaksanakan kontes modeling kecil-kecilan dengan busana khas kebaya untuk memperingati Hari Kelahiran R.A. Kartini yang masyur. Kita tahu hal itu karena sumbangan pemikirannya soal kemajuan kehidupan perempuan di masanya. Pemikirannya mengenai keharusan perempuan mengenyam pendidikan yang layak dianggap sudah melampui cara berpikir kebanyakan orang di masanya. Masa ketika bangunan kultur Jawa, tempat Kartini tinggal, sangat kental dengan cara pandang patriarki.

Namun justru itulah yang membuat Kartini penasaran dan terasah pemikirannya. Di tengah kultur yang membatasai ruang gerak dan perkembangan perempuan, ayah Kartini yang seorang Bupati Jepara memberinya keleluasaan sesekali untuk berkunjung keluar rumah dengan pengawasan. Bahkan dalam buku On Feminism and Nationalism disebutkan bahwa ayah Kartini adalah bupati pertama yang memberikan pendidikan barat kepada anak perempuannya. Dari sini Kartini mendapatkan cara pandang mengenai konsep emansipasi perempuan. Pandangan-pandangan Kartini didokumentasikan melalui tulisan dalam bentuk surat-surat kepada sahabat pena yang ada di Eropa.

Diterbitkan dalam beberapa buku, tulisan-tulisan Kartini bisa dibilang memicu rentetan perubahan posisi perempuan dalam masyarakat Indonesia. Sumbangan Kartini yang penting adalah sikap kritis terhadap pandangan mayoritas dalam hal relasi perempuan dan laki-laki dalam kerangka kebudayaan Jawa. Pada jaman ketika perempuan tidak mendapat akses pendidikan yang setara, Kartini menghadapi masa dimana nalarnya harus meraba-raba mengenai ide pembebasan perempuan. Posisinya sebagai pihak yang sadar akan rantai opresi yang mengikat perempuan pada masanya menjadikan karyanya monumental dan layak dijadikan rujukan ide pembebasan perempuan di Indonesia.

Sumbangan Kartini terhadap ide pembebasan perempuan akhirnya diakui negara pada tahun 1964. Melalui Keputusan Presiden RI nomer 108 tahun 1964 Kartini diangkat sebagai pahlawan nasional sekaligus penanda penetapan Hari Kartini setiap tanggal 21 April. Sampai sekarang 21 April diperingati secara beragam. Yang paling jamak dilakukan adalah peringatan melalui lomba-lomba yang dianggap merepresentasikan sifat perempuan, seperti fashion show kebaya, menghias tumpeng, lomba rias dan kontes lainnya yang menggunakan tubuh perempuan sebagai mediumnya. Model perayaan ini jelas bermasalah. Terdapat nuansa domestifikasi peran perempuan dan reduksi terhadap nilai-nilai yang diperjuangkan Kartini sebagai simbol pembebebasan perempuan dari struktur yang represif.

Sejarah perjuangan Kartini melibatkan pergulatan pemikiran panjang yang tidak didapatkan dari proses instan. Beragam konflik, proses berpikir dan resiko dilaluinya sebagai bagian dari sejarah kehidupan. Seharusnya nilai ini yang dirayakan. Cara merayakannya pun tidak dengan domestifikasi dan glorifikasi tubuh perempuan dalam acara peragaan busana. Peragaan busana pada Hari Kartini dimulai ketika masa Orde Baru. Pada masa Orde Baru yang dinilai represif, muncul kepentingan untuk menghegemoni pergerakan perempuan. Hasilnya dimunculkan ideologi ibu-isme yang dipraktikan oleh Dharma Wanita dan PKK yang sifatnya domestifikasi peran perempuan. Kedua organisasi tersebut yang secara aktif memulai perayaan Hari Kartini dalam bentuk peragaan busana dan lomba rias. Tujuannya adalah mendomestifikasi peran perempuan agar tidak menjadi gerakan yang terorganisir dan berpotensi menjadi ancaman terhadap kekuasaan.

Praktik ini terus berlanjut sampai sekarang. Hari Kartini hampir pasti dirayakan dengan acara seremonial yang justru membuat peringatan Hari Kartini tercerabut dari akar ide perjuangannya, soal identitas perempuan yang teropresi. Padahal masih banyak cara yang bisa dilakukan untuk merayakan Hari Kartini. Menulis salah satunya. Jika ingin meneladani secara literal apa yang dilakukan Kartini, menulislah! Hari-hari Kartini dihabiskan dengan menulis. Menulis apapun, mulai dari pemikirannya, curhatan soal masalah keluarga sampai dengan pengamatannya terhadap lingkungan sekitar. Kartini tidak akan jadi pahlawan nasional kalau tidak diawali dengan menulis. Seperti kata Pram, “Menulis adalah bekerja untuk keabadian.” Jika tidak menulis akan dengan mudah melebur dengan debu sejarah.

Memperingati Hari Kartini dengan menulis tidak serta merta menghilangkan rejeki penyedia jasa sewa kebaya. Yakinlah, diluar Hari Kartini masih banyak yang butuh menyewa kebaya. Jomblo yang ketemu jodoh misalnya. Atau jomblo yang disalip mantannya ketemu jodoh sampai harus jadi terima tamu.

Dias Pabyantara

Peneliti Gender dan Globalisasi
Center for Identity and Urban Studies (CENTRIUS)

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Dias Pabyantara

Peneliti Gender dan Globalisasi
Center for Identity and Urban Studies (CENTRIUS)

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