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Habis Makan Sudah Diberesin Belum?

BARU-baru ini gerai makanan cepat saji, Kaepci menjadi trending pembicaraan di media sosial. Bukan karena promo paketan murahnya, atau diskon dari ojek online, tapi karena himbauannya kepada pelanggan untuk membereskan tempat makannya seusai menyantap ayam krispi atau original.

Sekilas nampak baik-baik saja bukan? Namun masyarakat Indonesia yang sudah melek media sosial selalu punya cara untuk berdebat. Pro-Kontra adalah koentji! Membuat dua kubu adalah caranya.

Akhirnya terpecahlah netizen yang budiman menjadi dua kubu, pro dan nyinyir terhadap himbauan Kaepci. Kurang Ira Koesno saja nampaknya untuk jadi debat di televisi hehehe.

Kubu pro mengatakan bahwa ini adalah sikap yang baik. Beberes setelah makan adalah sikap yang sesuai dengan nilai-nilai kebaikan.

Salah? Oh, jelas tidak. Di kubu yang lain, katanya makan di restoran kan biar enggak ribet beres-beres di rumah. Salah?

Rasanya kok enggak juga. Sering kita memilih makan di luar karena malas beres-beres. Sering juga kita memilih ke restoran cepat saji, karena cepat dan enggak ribet. Hayooo ngaku…

Terus kalau dua-dua nya gak salah, yang salah siapa? Yang salah ya yang nanya mana yang salah hehe… Gini, serius dikit yaaa…

Yang sedang kita bicarakan ini bagian dari budaya, budaya makan. Membicarakan budaya tidak bisa dari sudut pandang salah dan benar atau baik dan buruk.

Budaya harus dibicarakan secara kontekstual. Dan biasanya konteks kebudayaan terikat dengan teritori atau wilayah. Benar atau baik di wilayah A belum tentu baik/benar di wilayah B.

Membereskan tempat makan di restoran cepat saji di Singapura mungkin baik, wajar dan dianggap beradab. Tapi kalau makan di warung padang yang dihidangkan semua makannnya dan sampeyan beres-beres kayak di Kaepci ya jatuhnya jadi aneh.

Budaya makan yang ada di Indonesia tidak bisa dipisahkan dengan aspek kolonialisme. Yak tul, cara makan kita adalah warisan dari jaman penjajahan.

Dalam buku Rijsttafel: Budaya Kuliner di Indonesia pada Masa Kolonial 1870-1942 disebutkan bahwa budaya makan yang dominan dilakukan oleh bangsawan adalah Rijsttafel, yakni menghidangkan semua makanan di atas meja, mirip dengan cara penyajian di rumah makan Padang.

Sekali makan bangsawan jaman kolonial ini bisa dilayani belasan pramusaji untuk sekali makan, baik pada saat penyajian makanan maupun selesai makan.

Karena cara makan ini dipraktikan terus-menerus oleh pemegang kuasa, secara tidak langsung cara makan demikian dianggap yang ideal oleh masyarakat Hindia waktu itu. Makan yang dilayani baik penyajian maupun pasca makan.

Mundur ke tahun 1500an, Majapahit punya tradisi makan yang unik. Diceritakan oleh Ma Huan dan Fei Xi, dua orang dalam rombongan Laksamana Ceng Ho, setelah makan semua alat makan yang terbuat dari emas di buang ke kolam Segaran (sekarang posisinya pesis di depan Museum Majapahit Trowulan).

Hal itu untuk mengesankan Kerajaan Majapahit yang besar dan kaya. Namun setelah itu alat makan dari emas tersebut diangkat kembali ketika tamu sudah tidak di tempat.

Dalam memori kolektif masyarakat Indonesia, tidak ada ingatan mengenai konsep makan di warung makan kemudian membereskan sendiri peralatan makannya setidaknya sampai gerai fast food menjamur di Indonesia.

Konsep warung makan di Indonesia sebelum fast food yang gampang dikenali ada dua, yakni warung tegal dan warung padang. Dan dua-duanya tidak memberikan ruang terhadap aktivitas beberes di meja makan pasca menyantap hidangan, kecuali untuk orang-orang tidak mampu melunasi tagihan makanan hehehe…

Namun kedua konsep warung makan ini menemui tantangan serius dari fast food. Akhir tahun 70-an gerai fast food mulai menjamur di Jakarta, seiring perubahan gaya hidup, daya beli dan selera, ke seluruh Indonesia.

Konsep fast food ini berbeda sekali dengan konsep warung makan yang sebelumnya ada di Indonesia. Hemat waktu, efisien dan self service.

Ketiga hal tersebut bertolak belakang dengan pengalaman makan di warung makan yang dalam sejarah masyarakat kita. Budaya makan kita selama ini melibatkan waktu yang lama karena diselingi ngobrol dan untuk beberapa orang merokok setelah makan, dilayani pra dan pasca makan, singkatnya berbeda sekali dengan cara makan yang dikonstruksi oleh gerai makanan cepat saji.

Dalam budaya cepat saji, pelanggan masuk kemudian mengantre di depan kasir sembari menunggu giliran. Setelah dilayani dan membayar tagihan makanan tentu saja pelanggan membawa sendiri pesanannya ke meja.

Mengambil sendiri saus dan sedotan (kalau ada), kemudian makan dengan tenang. Setelah makan membereskan alat makan dengan ditumpuk di tempat yang telah disediakan. Terakhir pulang dengan kantong kosong perasaan gembira.

Bandingkan dengan makan di warung makan pada konvensional. Pelanggan datang disambut senyum pramusaji. Ditanya pesanannya, diambilkan perlengkapan makan.

Disediakan alat makan, diambilkan es teh atau es Marimas diantarkan pesanannya. Selesai makan nyalain rokok, ngobrol sama orang-orang disekitar berlama-lama.

Selesai makan alat makan dibiarkan di atas meja, nanti dibereskan pramusaji. Dua hal yang berbeda sekali bukan?

Kalau saya daripada ribut dan saling nyinyir, yang mau dan mampu beradaptasi dengan cara makan di gerai makanan cepat saji yang silakan, yang enggak ya tinggal cari tempat lain.

Eh, ayam goreng pake tepung selain Kaepci juga banyak yang enak dan terjangkau lho. Ayam goreng hasil masak berdua sama istri atau suami di rumah misalnya.

Dias Pabyantara

Peneliti Gender dan Globalisasi
Center for Identity and Urban Studies (CENTRIUS)

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Dias Pabyantara

Peneliti Gender dan Globalisasi
Center for Identity and Urban Studies (CENTRIUS)

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