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Demokrasi Disintegritas

Ada yang salah dengan cara berdemokrasi orang-orang di negeri ini sehingga demokrasi kehilangan mutunya.

Pemilihan Umum Presiden (Pilpres) tahun 2019 tinggal menghitung beberapa bulan lagi. Eskalasi politik tanah air kian hari semakin memanas. Berbagai tema diskursus dan dialektika dihadirkan dalam ruang publik. Sayangnya, panorama politik hari ini yang terlihat adalah sensasi lebih daripada substansi.

Masa kampanye—baik dari Jokowi-Ma’ruf dan Prabowo-Sandi—yang telah berlangsung dua bulan belakangan ini seperti jauh panggang dari api. Ke dua kubu sibuk saling melempar bola panas. Obral-obrol program dan visi misi absen dalam dialog para seteru pemilu, berikut dengan segenap elit-elit pendukung mereka di muka publik hari ini.

Masyarakat seolah dipertunjukkan sebuah sirkus murahan pasar malam yang hanya mengemis riuh tawa dan tepuk tangan decak kagum penonton. Ruang demokrasi yang seharusnya menjadi arena pertarungan gagasan, berubah menjadi pertarungan sentimental. Catatan seperti isu HAM, keadilan pembangunan, kesenjangan hukum, dan problematika kesejahteraan yang seharusnya ada di halaman utama perjuangan para seteru pemilu dan elit politik, seolah hangus terbakar oleh bara api kebencian upaya menjatuhkan lawan. Elektabilitas adalah harga mati, sehingga intelektualitas dikesampingkan.

Demokrasi adalah fasilitas untuk menyelenggarakan kemerdekaan berpikir, yaitu kondisi yang diperlukan untuk menumbuhkan kecerdasan—ungkap Rocky Gerung. Akan tetapi kondisi itu tak tersedia dalam beberapa waktu terakhir menjelang pemilu ini. Narasi-narasi politik para elit dari ke dua kubu seperti; tampang boyolali, politisi sontoloyo, atau politik genduruwo misalnya, justru sama sekali tidak mencerminkan etika berpolitik yang baik dan mendidik sebagai upaya untuk mencerdaskan masyarakat.

Yang terbaca adalah upaya pembodohan: menggiring opini massa pada area konflik pertentangan atau disintegrasi. Penulis mencermati dan terkadang merasa miris, seringkali ketika sebuah narasi ‘tong kosong’ ditelurkan dari tubuh para elit, narasi mereka justru menjadi bahan perdebatan sengit bertendensi negatif yang disikapi sangat kontras dan keras di masyarakat bawah (grass root), terutama dari para pendukung masing-masing kubu dalam sebuah kontestasi elektoral. Mereka memanfaatkan narasi-narasi para elit politik untuk saling mencela dan meruntuhkan, membela dan saling menjatuhkan satu sama lain.

Moral politik para elit dan pendewasaan cara berdemokrasi rakyat hari ini diuji. Bahkan ujian tersebut telah bergulir semenjak bangsa ini mengalami transisi pasca reformasi. Klimaksnya terbaca pada konfrontasi politik pemilu 2014 lalu. Kita memang sudah bebas berdemokrasi, tetapi demokrasi kita tidak demikian bebas. Berbagai isu negatif digaungkan demi menumbuhkan sentimen masyarakat: “Jangan Pilih Prabowo, Ia Pelanggar HAM atau Jangan Pilih Jokowi, Ia Anak PKI!”.

Ruang demokrasi kita menjadi tidak sehat karena kebencian disuburkan. Pluralisme pun kerap terancam. Pilkada DKI 2017 dapat menjadi cerminan, alam demokrasi tidak mampu sepenuhnya membendung sentimen primordial tersebut. Karena komunitas terbesar dari masyarakat Indonesia (mayor community) masih memegang peranan penuh menjadi juru kemudi terhadap arah demokrasi di negeri ini. Padahal, konstitusi dan dasar negara pancasila menjamin hak kebebasan dan keadilan bagi seluruh warganya dalam bernegara, tak terkecuali mereka yang minoritas. Dan negara memiliki tanggung jawab untuk memberikan rasa aman kepada warga negaranya tersebut, tanpa pandang bulu.

Demokrasi kita mengalami disintegritas karena laku para elit politik yang tidak mencontohi cara berdemokrasi yang baik. Lihat saja di media-media, sopan santun dikesampingkan dan narasi-narasi sarkasme yang tak pantas justru dipertontonkan. Tidak ada adu logika, yang terlihat hanya adu cerca. “Semua pihak yang berkepentingan berusaha mencari cara untuk mendominasi pemakaian dan pemanfaatan atas suatu ruang dan mereproduksi segala pengetahuan untuk mempertahankan hegemoni mereka”—ungkap Henri Levebre, Sosiolog Perancis, dan memang itulah kenyataan yang terlihat hari ini: pengetahuan yang diproduksi untuk memecah satu sama lainnya demi sebuah tampuk kekuasaan (baca: kebencian yang diproduksi).

Ruang demokrasi riuh menjadi arena bagi masing-masing kubu untuk melakukan pembenaran dan saling mengkambing-hitamkan. Persaudaraan kita sebagai rakyat sebangsa kemudian ditanggalkan hanya karena perbedaan preferensi dan afiliasi politik. Tragis, karena belakangan ini fanatisme banyak menggugurkan nalar dan nurani manusia. Di daerah Sampang Jawa Timur misalnya, seperti tirto.id (26/11/2018), peristiwa berdarah terjadi antara dua simpatisan pendukung masing-masing kubu (Jokowi-Ma’ruf dan Prabowo-Sandi) hanya karena perbedaan pandangan politik.

Kita pun masih mengingat bagaimana kasus persekusi yang menimpa Ibu Susi Ferawati bersama anaknya oleh segerombol massa berkaos #2019GantiPresiden saat Car Free Day (CFD) di Bundaran Hotel Indonesia Jakarta beberapa waktu lalu. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa masyarakat kita masih sukar menerima sebuah perbedaan dalam ruang demokrasi. Siapa kemudian yang bertanggung jawab atas peristiwa ini? Negara? Pihak oposisi? Atau sang petahana?

Negara, dengan segenap warganya, hanya menjadi objek eksploitasi kekuasaan. Oposisi sibuk merebut dan petahana sibuk menjaga. Kegaduhan yang terjadi di masyarakat akar rumput justru merupakan imbas dari sikap agresif para elit politik yang selama ini mereka pertontonkan dalam kancah kekuasaan. Intoleransi adalah masalahnya.

Tidak ada diksi persuasif yang mencerdaskan dan bersifat merangkul dalam setiap narasi para elit politik kita hari ini yang menunjukkan etika seorang negarawan sejati. Masa pemilu seharusnya menjadi momentum sarana pendidikan politik massa. Sayang, mereka yang menyebut diri sebagai seorang intelektual-terpelajar juga tidak menunjukkan sifat yang demikian.

Kritik disodorkan untuk menciptakan kesadaran penguasa agar memperbaiki kinerjanya—tetapi sekaligus memutuskan untuk memusuhi. Apakah itu cara berdemokrasi? Peran mereka seolah semu, tidak obyektif. Tidak ada komitmen untuk menjaga ruang dialogis yang merangsang kecerdasan dalam berpikir—selain ujaran cebong, kampret, dungu, dan tolol yang dikonsumsi dan ditradisikan di media sosial mereka. Ini yang penulis amati.

Pada akhirnya, demokrasi memang adalah sebuah pilihan. Soal apakah kita mau kebhinekaan di negeri ini bisa terus terjaga. Atau apakah kita mau dapat terus bebas berpendapat dan berekspresi. Maka seharusnya demokrasi itu kita pelihara, dan di dalamnya toleransi adalah mutlak hukumnya.

Politik yang sehat adalah tanda demokrasi yang berintegritas. Kita mengharapkan kontestasi pemilu menjadi ajang pencerdasan, bahwa bersaing itu bukan bermusuhan. Bersaing adalah soal adu ide, gagasan, dan kreatifitas dengan tetap berpedoman pada tata aturan yang berlaku, bukan soal adu ketangkasan menjatuhkan lawan dengan menghalalkan segala cara.

Karena soal pemimpin; kita butuh yang nyata, bukan mengada-ada. Kita butuh yang tidak melulu beretorika, namun tidak pula sekedar kerja, kerja, dan kerja.

 

Afthon Ilman Huda

Afthon Ilman Huda

Rakyat Biasa

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Afthon Ilman Huda

Afthon Ilman Huda

Rakyat Biasa

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