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Cara Canggih Menemukan Asal-Usul Nenek Moyang

ASAL-usul merupakan salah satu identitas dasar dalam kehidupan setiap individu. Minimal seseorang dapat mengetahui dari mana nenek moyangnya berasal hingga anak keturunannya bermigrasi ke tempat di mana dia hidup saat ini.

Kalau kedua orang tua berasal dari etnis yang sama tentu seseorang akan yakin bahwa dia adalah berasal dari etnis itu, berikut dengan ras yang melekat padanya. Namun bagi individu yang orang tuanya campuran ini soal lain. Bagian dirinya menjadi unik, misalnya separuh Jawa dan separuh lainnya Batak.

Cukup beruntung seseorang yang punya catatan mengenai silsilah nenek moyangnya. Misalnya kalangan Sayyid atau Habaib, mereka akan mudah menentukan nenek moyang (dari garis laki-laki) bahkan sampai ke Nabi Adam. Sebab setiap keluarga Habaib biasanya memegang silsilah ini dan juga direkam dengan baik pada institusi Rabithah Alawiyah.

Contohnya adalah salah seorang filsuf besar abad ini Syed Muhammad Naquib Al Attas. Pada bukunya Ma’na Kebahagiaan Dalam Islam ditulis bahwa dia adalah keturunan ke-37 dari Husain bin Ali. Mengetahui fakta ini saja kita sudah dapat memeriksa lewat buku sejarah genealogi seorang Naquib Al Attas lewat Husain sampai Nabi Ismail lalu ke Nabi Adam sebagai manusia pertama.

Kalangan lain yang akan mudah menentukan nenek moyangnya adalah keluarga Kerajaan. Ambil contoh Keraton Yogyakarta. Sultan Hamengkubowono ke X yang sekarang menjabat adalah anak dari Sultan Hamengkubowo ke IX yang kalau ditelusuri merupakan keturunan dari Sultan Hamengkubowono I. Anggota kerajaan yang bukan menjadi raja pun juga akan mudah mendapatkan informasi mengenai identitasnya. Misalnya si A adalah cicit istri ke sekian dari Raja Fulan.

Manusia kebanyakan memang tidak mencatat silsilahnya, kecuali adat istiadat mewajibkannya. Misalnya pada etnis Minangkabau yang matrilineal, setiap suku biasanya mencatat silsilah mereka dari jalur perempuan. Penulis sendiri masih memegang silsilah ini, setidaknya sampai nenek ketujuh dihitung mulai dari ibu. Selain berfungsi sebagai rekaman asal-usul, pencatatan ini berfungsi praktis supaya tidak terjadi perkawinan sesuku.

Akan halnya bagi orang yang tidak mempunyai rekam jejak asal usulnya, secara global bisa melacaknya melalui sejarah. Benny G. Setiono menyatakan bahwa orang Nusantara zaman kuno, khususnya ras Mongoloid, merupakan kelompok manusia yang datang secara bergelombang ke tempat yang kita diami saat ini. Mereka datang dari daratan selatan Asia melalui tiga jalur yaitu Yunnan , Teluk Tonkin dan juga Negeri Campa.

Generasi pertama datang sekitar 3000-5000 SM dikenal dengan istilah Melayu Tua (Proto Melayu). Sedangkan gelombang kedua, Melayu Muda (Deutro Melayu) datang sekitar 200-300 SM.Etnis yang masuk dalam kategori Melayu Tua adalah Batak, Dayak dan Toraja. Sedangkan etnis Melayu muda diantaranya terdapat Jawa, Bugis dan Minangkabau.

Dari sisi sejarah ini bisa dipahami bahwa nenek moyang bangsa Indonesia ras Mongoloid yang ada saat ini berasal dari daerah yang sekarang dikenal dengan Tiongkok dan juga Vietnam.

Seiring dengan perkembangan sains dan teknologi, sebetul ada cara yang lebih canggih untuk menentukan asal usul. Seseorang bisa mengambil tes DNA. Namun tes DNA jenis ini bukanlah untuk memastikan bahwa dia adalah anak dari orang tuanya.

Tes DNA ini bertujuan untuk melacak campuran genetik secara geografis. Artinya seseorang bisa saja dia yakin 100% berasal dari ras dan etnis tertentu berdasarkan tempat dimana dia dilahirkan. Tetapi lewat tes ini bisa dibuktikan bahwa sebetulnya dia mewarisi genetik dari ras lain melalui nenek moyangnya dimasa lalu. Tes ini disebut DNA Ancestry Test.

Seseorang dengan nama akun gpl992 yang berdarah campuran Ambon dan Eropa suatu kali mempublikasikan hasil tesnya di Youtube. Fakta awal yang dia ketahui adalah bahwa Bapaknya berasal dari Eropa dan Ibunya seorang Maluku. Setelah dia mengambil tes Ancestry DNA dia menemukan ragam campuran genetik dalam dirinya. Hasil tes menyebutkan bahwa dalam dirinya terdapat 48% Eropa, 18% Melanesia, 31% Kepulauan Pasifik, 1% Asia Selatan dan Timur Tengah, dan 2% Afrika.

Hasil dari tes DNA untuk penelurusan nenek moyang ini menunjukkan bahwa diri seseorang adalah kombinasi dari para leluhurnya. Dari tes yang dilakukan oleh akun gpl992 diatas setidaknya kita mengetahui bahwa paling tidak dia mewarisi Melanesia dan Kepulauan Pasifik dari jalur ibunya.

Selain itu juga dapat dimaknai bahwa di Maluku sendiri terdapat percampuran kelompok manusia antara Melanesia dan Pasifik. Begitu juga halnya dengan wilayah geografis lainnya yang jumlah persentasenya kecil. Ada kemungkinan bagian tersebut dia dapatkan dari nenek moyangnya yang sudah sangat jauh jaraknya. Misalnya Timur Tengah yang hanya 1%, ini kemungkinan berasal dari leluhur Yahudinya mengingat dirinya sebagai pemeluk agama tersebut..

Poin penting dari tes Ancestry DNA ini selain menemukan “asal usul bahan pembentuk genetik” adalah betapa tidak bermartabatnya perilaku rasis. Biasanya alasan untuk tidak rasis adalah kondisi manusia yang setara karena sesama anak cucu Adam. Kecanggihan teknologi hari ini memperkuat hal itu dan lebih membuka mata manusia.

Ternyata dalam diri, betapapun kuatnya rasa etnis dan kesukuan seseorang, dia tidak bisa menampik fakta bahwa dalam dirinya ada jejak nenek moyangnya dari belahan dunia lain.

 

Muhammad Farid Salman Alfarisi RM

Pengamat Psikologi Sosial dan Penikmat Studi Islam

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Muhammad Farid Salman Alfarisi RM

Pengamat Psikologi Sosial dan Penikmat Studi Islam

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