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Bugis Kristen: Perjumpaan Agama di Serambi Madinah

MENGHABISKAN segelas kopi panas di Warung Atjeh, bilangan Sabang Jakarta, seorang pengunjung masuk mengambil tempat duduk. Semasa memulai membakar rokok, sang tamu mengajak berbincang. Beberapa topik yang sementara wujud di tanah air.

Sampailah kami di topik yang tidak saya kenal. Dia memulai dengan kalimat, “Saya bertemu dengan kenalan baru dari Bugis. Hanya saja dia beragama Protestan”.

Saya pun tidak menyambung cerita itu. Beberapa kawan dari suku lain memilih Protestan atau Kaolik. Begitu pula di Papua dan Minahasa, kawan-kawan diantaranya Protestan atau Katolik.

Hanya saja, jika dia orang Bugis. Belum pernah terjumpa. Apalagi sebulan terakhir menyelesaikan sebuah buku Islamisasi Bugis (Akhmar, 2018). Saya mulai mengingat fragmen-fragmen perjalanan.

Beberapa maklumat mulai bermunculan, saya berjumpa di EuroSEAS, Wina (2015) mahasiswa pasca yang menulis rumah Bugis. Fokus penelitian ditumpukan pada masyarakat Bugis di Soppeng. Jika demikian, masyarakat Bugis di Soppeng tidak semuanya Bugis.

Petunjuk ini, kemudian menjadi salah satu kunci untuk menelusuri tentang ke-Kristenan individu Bugis. Hipotesa saya selama ini perlu diuji. “Etnis Bugis pasti Islam”, demikian pandangan saya. Hanya karena keterbatasan perkenalan, sehingga begitu andaian saya.

Mulai dari Camba, sampai ke Maros. Selanjutnya dari Pangkajene ke Parepare. Berlanjut ke Sidenreng Rappang dimana Hasan Langgulung dan Quraish Shihab lahir. Begitu pula Wajo dimana pendidikan Islam pertama kali bermula di Sulawesi Selatan. Di mana etnis Bugis berbagi dengan Toraja dan Makassar dalam sebuah wilayah administrasi provinsi. Apalagi, Bone, Soppeng, Sinjai, dan Bulukumba yang dalam urutan perjalanan, tak menjumpai keluarga Bugis yang Kristen.

Ternyata, lagi-lagi saya yang tidak paham. Di Bone, dalam catatan Polisi Resort Bone, terdapat setidaknya 10 gereja. Itu data tahun 2012. Hanya saja, belum mendapatkan data tentang jemaat gereja tersebut. Dugaan saya, jemaat adalah orang yang datang dari luar Bone untuk bekerja atau berdagang. Mereka kemudian mendirikan gereja.

Perlahan mulai mendapatkan maklumat. Walaupun hanya waktu tiga tahun, dalam kurun waktu 1544-1547, pedagang Portugis pernah membaptis para raja di Bungoro, Pangkep, dan Ajatappareng yang kala itu disebut kerajaan Siang.

Dengan demikian, wilayah tersebut melalui fase dari attoriolong (animism) ke Katolik dan beralih ke Islam. Sementara wilayah lain yang tidak didatangi pedagang Portugis, menjalani fase animisme ke  Islam.

Saat itu, 1544 pedagang de Paiva membaptis Datu Suppa setelah dialog teologis. Tidak saja itu, empat warga Suppa dikirim ke India untuk belajar ke-Kristenan di sekolah Jesuit.

Sebelumnya didahului dengan permintaan Raja Suppa dan Raja Siang ke Gubernur Portugis di Melaka untuk mengirim pendeta ke wilayah mereka (Druce, 2009).

Setelahnya dalam waktu tak sampai setahun, permintaan kedua raja tersebut dikabulkan. Dikirimlah sebuah misi khusus yang dipimpin Vicenta Viegas. Dalam misi ini Raja Alitta dan Bacukiki kemudian juga ikut dibaptis. De Eredia menyebutkan bahwa Raja Sawitto dan Raja Sidenreng juga ikut serta dalam pembaptisan tersebut.

Jikalau melihat pola “patron-klien” masyarakat Bugis (Pelras, 1988), saya menduga tidak hanya para raja di kedua wilayah tersebut yang menganut Kristen tetapi juga rakyatnya. Dengan demikian, maka wilayah tersebut tidak saja membaptis raja-raja tetapi juga masyarakat. Sehingga bisa jadi penganut Kristen tidak saja di lingkungan raja, tetapi juga di luar pemukimam para raja.

Aritonang (2004) menjelaskan kemunduran misi Kristen karena Portugis tidak tertarik mengeksplorasi wilayah Siang dan Ajatappareng dikarenakan rempah-rempah yang dicari tidak sesuai dengan keadaan pasar saat itu.

Begitu pula dengan penguasaan para pedagang muslim di Melaka yang mulai membesar. Sehingga Portugis memutuskan tidak melanjutkan misi di kerajaan-kerajaan Bugis.

Sebelumnya, pedagang Portugis sudah mulai bermukim di Somba Opu pada tahun 1538 (Mahmud & Husni, 2009). Hanya saja, para pedagang tersebut belum dapat meyakinkan Raja Tunijallo untuk memeluk Kristen. Bahkan Tunijallo meminta jasa kapal Portugis untuk digunakan bagi para jamaah haji untuk berangkat ke tanah suci.

Sehingga di tahun 1545 semua raja-raja di Ajatappareng memeluk Kristen. Jika Sewang (2005) menyebut bahwa Islam mulai dipeluk Raja Gowa pada tahun 1605. Sementara De Jong (1996) menuliskan  1603. Ini berarti 57 sampai 60 tahun sebelumnya sebuah agama sudah dikenal sebelum Islam di wilayah Siang dan Ajatappareng.

Begitu pula 1580, Sultan Babullah menemui Daeng Mametta (Pelras, 2006). Kesempatan yang sama digunakan Sultan Babullah untuk mengajak Tunijalloq untuk turut memeluk Islam. Hanya saja, ajakan tersebut belum disahut, seiring dengan keraguan Tunijalloq untuk menentukan pilihan agama (Mattulada, 1983).

Sehingga Islam mulai menyebar di Gowa, 23 tahun setelahnya. Hamid (1983) mengemukakan kedatangan Tiga Datuk (Datuk Tallua) sebagai awal mula Islamisasi di Gowa.

Kedatangan mereka dimulai dengan belum adanya pilihan agama pada Gowa. Sehingga, pedagang Melayu muslim mulai memikirkan bagaimana penyebaran agama Islam di Gowa. Melihat simpati Raja Gowa terhadap Kristen, maka diusahakanlah mendatangkan guru-guru yang dapat mengajar Islam.

Perang di Ajatappareng dan dukungan militer yang tidak memadai dari Portugis, sehingga pengaruh Portugis pelan-pelan hilang. Sementara itu Datu Suppa tetap memeluk Kristen sampai akhir hayatnya (Caldwell, 1995). Apalagi putri Datu Suppa dinikahi secara resmi oleh perwira Portugis di Melaka.

Sampai kemudian Raja Gowa Tunipallangga (bertahta 1546-1565) menalukkan Ajatappareng dan sekaligus menjadi awal penyebaran Islam pada saatnya ketika Karaeng Matoayya menyatakan diri sebagai muslim.

Begitu Portugis mundur dari wilayah Bugis, tidak ada lagi kelanjutan pengiriman misi Kristen ke daerah Bugis. Sementara empat orang yang dikirim ke India untuk belajar Kristen juga tidak pernah kembali.

Itu di masa lalu, untuk kondisi kekinian justru di Soppeng terdapat gereja dengan menggunakan struktur rumah panggung. Sekilas saya mencermati nama-nama pengurus Persekutuan Generasi Muda Kristen Soppeng (PGMKS) seperti Mulyadi Masse. Jikalau saja, itu bukan di PGMKS, maka saya tidak bisa membedakan dengan nama Bugis lain yang beragama Islam.

Saat ini terdapat tiga tempat Kristen Bugis di Soppeng. Tersebar di Pacongkang, Woddi, dan Watansoppeng. Bahkan sampai sekarang patung Maria Peita berdiri tegak di Lalabata. Terletak di kawasan Gereja Santa Perawan Maria Bunda Pengharapan Suci.

Menjadi destinasi masyarakat Kristen dari pelbagai penjuru untuk berkunjung. Hanya saja, keberadaan patung ini baru di tahun 1970. Dibawa Pastor Leo Blot dari Italia. Dalam pendapat yang lain justru patung tersebut sudah berada di Soppeng sejak zaman kolonial. Apapun sejarahnya, patung itu berada di sana dan menjadi bagian dari perjalanan keagamaan masyarakat Katolik tidak saja dari tanah air tetapi menarik masyarakat Katolik dari negara lain.

Di hari Natal ini, perlahan saya mulai memahami bahwa tidak saja Islam. Kristen-pun sudah dikenal sejak awal oleh masyarakat Bugis dan Makassar yang kala itu masih dalam bentuk kerajaan.

Masyarakat Bugis diwakili daerah Suppa, sementara masyarakat Makassar diwakili masyarakat Somba Opu. Sehingga saya tidak perlu heran, jikalau ada etnis Bugis yang memeluk Kristen.

Ismail Suardi Wekke

STAIN Sorong

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Ismail Suardi Wekke

STAIN Sorong

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