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Becak Hidup Lagi, Siapa Pebisnis Diuntungkan Anies?

KEMBALINYA becak adalah kemunduran Ibukota Jakarta. Di saat kota-kota besar dunia mengembangkan mobil tanpa awak atau kendaraan ramah lingkungan. Gubernur DKI Jakarta malah mengembalikan wajah Jakarta seperti tahun 70-an.

Peraturan gubernur tentang dibolehkannya becak ini memang belum terbit. Namun, rancangan ini sudah memunculkan pelbagai penolakan, bahkan ada tudingan becak sengaja dihidupkan demi menghidupkan bisnis seseorang.

Bimbim salah satu pendukung kembalinya becak. Personel band yang saya anggap keren ini menganggap tak masalah jika becak hidup lagi, asal peruntukannya diatur untuk pariwisata. Bimbim menilai, saat ini angkutan becak di Jakarta akan lebih pas untuk pariwisata karena bisa menjadi ikon Ibukota. Maksud Bimbim mungkin peruntukan becak seperti di Jogjakarta atau Tuk-tuk di Thailand.

“Jadi, becak bisa ditempatkan kayak di Taman Mini, kawasan Monas, atau Ancol, bener bener untuk wisata,” kata penggebuk drum ini.

“Tak masalah jika becak hidup lagi, asal peruntukannya diatur untuk pariwisata. Saat ini angkutan becak di Jakarta akan lebih pas untuk pariwisata karena bisa menjadi ikon Ibukota. Seperti Tuk-tuk di Thailand.”

 

Saya sepakat dengan Bimbim jika seandainya becak hanya dioperasikan di titik-titik tertentu di Jakarta. Tapi saya dan Bimbim harus sepakat gigit jari juga. Masalahnya, Anies Baswedan beberapa waktu lalu mengisyaratkan becak beroperasi di jalan-jalan sekitar pasar, dan perumahan karena peruntukannya mengangkut ibu-ibu. Seperti dikatakannya dua minggu lalu.

“Kami akan atur agar kebutuhan warga terhadap transportasi difasilitasi. Becak tidak akan ada kalau enggak ada kebutuhan atas becak, untuk itu angkutan baru akan kami segerakan, bagian ini adalah mengatur agar becak bisa beroperasi di rute yang ditentukan.” Anies mengakhiti pidato dan seketika disambut tepuk tangan di Waduk Pluit, Jakarta.

Seperti umumnya wacana Anies selama ini. Ada barang, ada pembeli, ada program karena ada yang menginginkan. Tapi apakah demikian pula yang berlaku pada becak. Saya ragu. Di saat kian maraknya transportasi online dan kemacetan Ibukota, orang lebih memilih transportasi yang nyaman dan cepat.

Apalagi tidak ada yang bisa memastikan kebijakan peraturan gubernur ini tidak berubah. Pasangan gubernur dan wagub yang sudah menjabat 100 hari ini, tampak punya berbagai ide “segar”. Suatu saat tiba-tiba delman misalnya menggantikan becak dan beroperasi ke kawasan “segitiga emas”. Atau Delman dan becak berkejaran dengan transportasi lain di kawasan Thamrin, Sudirman hingga di Kuningan.

Seperti ide segar Sandi yang hendak menambahkan “aksesoris” pada becak jika jadi beroperasi guna menghadapi zaman. Sandiaga mau mengganti becak kayuh yang jumlahnya sekitar seribu buah di Jakarta dengan becak listrik. Ide ini dia lontarkan pada media, hari Minggu 28 Januari 2018. Sandiaga berencana akan menggandeng PLN untuk membuat becak listrik ini.

Ide ini cukup aneh sebenarnya, karena Sandi seolah tidak mempertimbangkan fungsi PLN. Perusahaan negara ini bertugas untuk menyuplai listrik, bukan produsen alat transportasi. kendati belakangan PLN fokus untuk mempromosikan mobil dan motor listrik, kendaraan tersebut tentu tidak dibuat oleh PLN.

Kepala Humas PLN Dsitribusi Jakarta Raya yang saya tanyai pun mengaku pihaknya tidak menyepakati soal becak listrik ini. “Belum ada Mas, masih kami kaji keinginan pak Sandi,” katanya.

“Ide ini cukup aneh sebenarnya, karena Sandi seolah tidak mempertimbangkan fungsi PLN. Meskipun belakangan PLN fokus untuk mempromosikan mobil dan motor listrik, kendaraan tersebut tentu tidak dibuat oleh PLN.”

Jika Sandi bersikeras melaksanakan produksi becak listrik, tentu harus melalui kajian seperti keselamatan dan kelayakan jalan oleh Kemenhub atau Badan Pengkajian Penerapan Teknologi. Ada baiknya Sandiaga berkonsultasi dulu dengan kampus-kampus yang terbukti berhasil menciptakan kendaraan listrik seperti ITS ataupun ITB.

***

Di sini saya mecoba meyakinkan diri ada niat baik Anies-Sandi di balik menghidupkan becak. Hal ini demi mendukung Energi Baru Terbarukan (EBT). Anies-Sandi memang sebaiknya memikirkan bagaimana rumah warga Jakarta dapat diterangi dengan tenaga listrik yang murah dan hemat energi. Seperti tagline mereka saat kampanye: Maju Kotanya, Bahagia Warganya.

Salah satu EBT untuk menghasilkan listrik dan terbukti berhasil di negara lain ialah pembangkit listrik arus laut. Teknologi ini terbukti murah dan ramah lingkungan. selain itu aman tidak seperti pembangkit tenaga nuklir misalnya yang di tempatkan di sekitar pemukiman warga. Energi listrik dari arus laut ini, sudah diterapkan di beberapa negara seperti China dan Prancis.

Pembangkit listrik jenis ini prinsipnya hampir sama dengan pembangkit tenaga angin, bedanya yang menggerakkan turbinnya ialah arus laut. Makanya, pembangunan pembangkit listrik ini idealnya di lokasi selat, untuk mendapatkan arus laut yang deras.

Media Prancis menyebut, teknologi penghasil listrik di negara ini berada di Selat Unshant. Selat tersebut mampu menghidupkan pembangkit listrik arus laut berkapasitas 1 MW. Selanjutnya dijelaskan, bahwa listrik yang telah dihasilkan dari pembangkit itu kini sudah masuk ke jaringan PLN lokal di Perancis, dan disalurkan ke rumah-rumah masyarakat.

Biaya investasi satu pembangkit arus laut dengan kapasitas 1 MW saat ini memang cukup tinggi, dibandingkan dengan pembangkit yang memanfaatkan bahan bakar fosil. Namun, untuk jangka panjang, pembangkit listrik ini tentu lebih unggul karena tidak akan habis.

“Misalnya investasi arus laut itu Rp 1 juta sedangkan diesel itu Rp 200 ribu, tapi diesel itu kan butuh bahan bakar dan ada cost tambahan, jika dihitung selama 20 tahun ke depan maka lebih murah arus laut,” ujar Manunggal, Mechanical Engineer perusahaan konsorsium MPS.

Kalau misalnya alasan pemimpin DKI Jakarta pengoperasian becak karena ingin menyejahterakan tukang becak sebagai warga Jakarta, maka ada baiknya menjadikan mereka tenaga lepas harian pemprov. Mengayuh becak bisa jadi hanya pilihan terakhir karena terbatasnya pekerjaan yang tersedia. Selain itu tukang becak malah menempatkan mereka pada kondisi yang tidak manusiawi. Mereka bersaing dengan alat transportasi yang mengandalkan mesin sehingga murah. Seperti lagu Iwan Fals, Mereka Bukan Piihan.

Dari pengalaman saya selama ini tukang becak di beberapa daerah, juga rata-rata berusia tua. Tidak ada anak muda yang bersedia mengambil estafet pekerjaan ini dari keluarganya. Kasian jika di usia lanjut, mereka yang sepuh masih harus menggenjot becak demi mengharapkan imbalan yang tak seberapa.

Mencontoh Risma

Anies bisa mencontoh Tri Rismaharini, Walikota Surabaya yang berhasil memberdayakan tukang becak. Risma menawarkan kepada abang tukang becak Surabaya agar beralih pekerjaan dengan gaji Rp 3,2 juta.

Penghasilan tukang becak di Surabaya saat ditawari gaji itu sebesar Rp 600.000 hingga Rp 1 juta per bulan. Dan mereka berbondong-bondong beralih profesi sejak 2017 lalu.

“Kalau dengan nanti saya alihkan mereka jadi tukang sapu, satpam sekolah, mereka bisa dapat gaji senilai upah minimum kota (UMK) Rp 3,2 juta per bulan,” kata Risma kepada awak media, Oktober 2017.

Sementara menurut data BPS penghasilan rata-rata tukang becak di Jakarta Rp 2,1 juta per bulan atau setara Rp 70.000 per hari. Jika ditawari dengan UMK Jakarta sebesar Rp 3,6 juta ini dengan senang hati mereka akan menukar becaknya dengan alat kerja baru.

“Anies bisa mencontoh Tri Rismaharini, Walikota Surabaya yang berhasil memberdayakan tukang becak. Risma menawarkan kepada abang tukang becak Surabaya agar beralih pekerjaan dengan gaji Rp 3,2 juta.”

Nah, Anie-Sandi bisa melanjutkan pendataan abang becak di Jakarta sambil tapi untuk menawari mereka bertukar profesi. Ketimbang mendata untuk menerima pelatihan menggowes becak listrik, mereka tentu akan ogah-ogahan. Setau saya teknik menggowes becak dari baheula hingga sekarang memang tetap sama dari atas ke bawah. Tak ada yang istimewa meskipun disandingkan dengan embel-embel listrik.

Apalagi penolakan warga juga sangat banyak, kecurigaan baru telah muncul kalau pemprov DKI Jakarta memaksakan aturan ini hanya demi proyek pengadaan. Seperti kata Sandiaga ada beberapa korporasi yang menawarkan pembuatan becak listrik padanya. Semoga saja tidak ada kongkalikong antar pebisnis di balik aturan ini.

Aco Pamatte

Aco Pamatte

Penyintas yang menyukai kecap dan literasi.

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