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Akar Homofobia dan Pria Tak Berselera Wanita

Ilustrasi (Sumber foto: olhardireto.com.br)

PASCA tayang di program FAKTA TVOne membahas LGBT, Agama dan HAM, saya mendapat luapan komentar. Sebagian besar menghujat, terutama soal ayat. Saya salah kutip nomor ayat dalam QS. Al-Nur. Seharusnya ayat 31, namun saya sebut ayat 30. Sungguh merupakan kekhilafan saya.

Akan tetapi atas substansi topik yang dibahas, saya tetap meyakini Allah mampu menciptakan manusia yang beragam. Dia berkuasa menciptakan sosok lelaki –baik yang menyukai perempuan atau yang tidak terangsang melihat Christina Aguilera sekalipun.

Kemampuan ini oleh Alloh diabadikan secara benderang dalam dua ayat; qauliyah–sebagaimana tertera dalam QS. 24:31, dan kauniyah–keberadaan mereka dalam realitas empirik.

Allah bahkan saya yakini berkuasa mampu menciptakan apa yang menurut kita mustahil. Sebab, tanpa keyakinan  seperti ini, akan sia-sia bangunan tauhid yang kita percayai selama ini.

Dua ayat ini bisa dikatakan sebagai bukti legalitas tekstual maupun empirikal keberadaan mereka, sebanding dengan legalitas kehadiran ragam ciptaan lain yang bersuku-bangsa, sebagaimana disinggung dalam QS. 49:13.

Pria Tak Berselera Wanita

Lantas, siapakah mereka–pria tak berselera terhadap wanita ini, sebagaimana tercantum dalam QS. An-Nur 31? Ragamnya bisa banyak, tergantung sejauh mana ketercukupan pengetahuan seseorang dalam membaca alam raya ini.

Dengan merangkum berbagai pandangan (Ibnu Abbas, Qatadah, Mujahid, Sha’bi) yang bersumber dari dua kitab Tafsir Al-Quran milik Jarir al-Tabari dan Ibnu Kathir, tokoh Sunni Ortodok asal Pakistan, Al-Maududi, mencoba menjelaskan sosok yang tertera di QS 24:31 itu di tafsir Tafhim Al-Quran.

Dalam versi bahasa Inggris, dia menterjemahkan teks tabi’in ghoyru uli al-irba sebagai those from among the men who are your subordinates and have no desire–pembantu laki-laki yang tidak punya hasrat seksual terhadap perempuan.

Al-Maududi selanjutnya merujuk pada sosok Hit, pria feminim (mukhannats) berdasarkan kisah dari Ummu Salamah dan Aishah yang terekam dalam beberapa kitab hadits kanonik seperti  Bukhari, Muslim, Nasa’i dan Abu Dawud.

Kisah tersebut menceritakan; suatu ketika di rumah Ummu Salamah terjadi obrolan antara 3 orang; Hit duduk di samping Ummu Salamah, dan Abdullah bin Abi Umayyah, saudara Ummu Salamah.

“Eh nanti kalau kamu berhasil menaklukkan kota Taif, jangan lupa mencari puterinya Ghilan Tsaqafi ya,” kata Hit ke Abdullah sembari mendeskripsikan kemolekan puteri Ghilan.

Nampaknya Nabi mendengar perbincangan itu dan berkata la yadkhulanna haulai ‘alaykunna (mereka –para perempuan–seharusnya tidak boleh masuk ke rumah kalian).

Ungkapan bernada ketidaksukaan Nabi ini kemudian bisa dipahami dalam beberapa tafsir.

Pertama, Nabi tidak suka dengan seluruh waria secara umum. Namun hal ini tidak cukup beralasan mengingat sangat mungkin Hit adalah asisten rumah tangga, atau minimal dekat, dengan Ummu Salamah.

Hal ini bisa diketahui dari kesediaan Ummu Salamah duduk di samping Hit saat itu. Kedua, Nabi tidak suka dengan omongan Hit, bukan keberadaannya.

Hipotesis kedua ini nampaknya yang paling memungkinkan. Saya menduga Nabi kuatir hal-hal pribadi istrinya akan dibocorkan Hit–sebagaimana Hit membocorkan kemolekan puteri Ghilan Tsaqafi kepada Abdullan bin Abi Umayyah.

Namun menurut al-Maududi, nabi bersikap seperti itu karena menganggap Hit tidak sepenuhnya tidak suka perempuan. Kedetilan Hit mendeskripsikan puteri Ghilan dianggap Nabi sebagai indikator ketertarikannya pada perempuan–sungguhpun Hit adalah waria.

Mungkin ini sebabnya, Yusuf al-Kirmani (w. 1384) membagi waria ada dua; khilqy (pemberian tuhan, given) dan takallufi (gadungan). Waria jenis takallufi adalah ia yang menyamar menjadi perempuan padahal  masih punya hasrat seksual terhadap perempuan. Kepura-puraannya hanyalah kedok untuk melakukan kejahatan, misalnya kekerasan seksual (Rowson, 1991). Sangat mungkin Nabi kuatir Hit adalah waria takallufi, yang itu sebabnya ia diusir.

Lebih lanjut, tidak ditemukan lagi penjelasan apakah pascaperistiwa itu Hit tetap di rumah Ummu Salamah atau tidak. Jika tetap di sana, maka saya anggap ia telah berhasil mengklarifikasi dirinya adalah waria khilqy.

Waria jenis ini, dalam kacamata kajian gender dan seksualitas, adalah laki-laki homoseksual (karena tidak punya hasrat terhadap perempuan) dengan identitas gender feminim ( berpenampilan gemulai). Sebab ada juga jenis laki-laki homoseks yang tetap mempertahankan identitasnya sebagai pria maskulin.

Akar Homofobia

Lalu, kenapa banyak diantara kita yang marah dan kejang-kejang menerima hal ini, bahkan cenderung bertindak destruktif?

Sulit untuk tidak mengatakan masih banyak orang mengidap problem psikologis dalam bentuk homofobia — yakni ketakutan akut terhadap orang yang suka sesama jenis. Layaknya air bah, ketakutan ini berubah menjadi kekuatan mematikan yang intimidatif.

Hemat saya, homofobia muncul melalui tiga tahap utama–sebelum bertengger di tahap dua terakhir; diskriminasi dan kekerasan fisik terhadap kelompok LGBT.

Tahap pertama adalah bias–yakni cara pandang yang bertumpu pada keyakinan bahwa identitas tertentu lebih unggul/baik ketimbang identitas lainnya. Kelompok hetero merasa dirinya lebih baik ketimbang non-hetero, salah satunya karena keunggulan reproduktif.

Laki-laki feminim dan perempuan maskulin dipersepsi sebagai aib, tidak natural dan mencoreng kehormatan diri, keluarga dan lingkungan.

Namun, apakah cara pandang ini diperbolehkan Islam? Saya ragu. Al-Quran tidak pernah memerintah kita menumpahkan kebencian atas keragaman identitas. Justru menurut Allah, setiap orang berada dalam derajat yang sama, dengan ketakwaan sebagai barometer pembedanya–bukan jenis kelamin, kemampuan reproduksi, atau faktor lainnya.

Di tahap kedua, bias tadi mendapat topangan kokoh dari stereotipe–yakni anggapan miring semua orang dengan ciri tertentu pasti sama semua. Misalnya, anggapan bahwa semua laki-laki pasti suka lawan jenis, atau semua yang berorientasi seksual homo pastilah melakukan persetubuhan-paksa seperti kaum Luth, atau pemangsa anak laki-laki seperti Robot Gedeg.

Cara pandang ini sama ngawur dengan simpulan, “Semua laki-laki hetero pasti seperti Syekh Puji, sebab dia juga hetero”. Puji adalah laki-laki hetero asal Semarang yang tersandung kasus perkawinan perempuan bawah umur beberapa tahun lalu. Stereotipe sangat berbahaya jika digunakan secara berlebihan, bisa menjebak dalam kesesatan logika.

Kedua tahap ini selanjutnya disempurnakan oleh tahap ketiga, yakni prejudice, praduga. Minimnya pengetahuan tentang Syiah, Ahmadiyah, Tionghoa, Penghayat, Korban 65-66, Non-Muslim maupun LGBT, seringkali mendongkrak sentimen negatif kita atas mereka. Yang ujungnya, seseorang akan mudah bertindak diskriminatif dan melakukan kekerasan.

Saya merasa ketiga tahapan homofobia ini tumbuh subur dan massif dengan memanfaatkan tafsir agama tanpa disertai keberimbangan dan ketercukupan pemahaman mengenai kelompok ini.

Bayangkan, betapa rumitnya  jika pengidap homofobia adalah pengambil kebijakan atau hakim penentu keadilan, yang kerap membawa-bawa nama Tuhan. Bisa dipastikan, seluruh orang akan dipaksa berlaku seperti dia; fobia terhadap pria tak berselera wanita.

Wallohu a’lam. 

Aan Anshori

Aan Anshori

Kordinator Jaringan Islam Antidiskriminasi (JIAD), tengah nyantri di S2 Hukum Keluarga Islam Univ. Hasyim Asy'ari Tebuireng Jombang, twitter @aananshori

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Tentang Penulis

Aan Anshori

Aan Anshori

Kordinator Jaringan Islam Antidiskriminasi (JIAD), tengah nyantri di S2 Hukum Keluarga Islam Univ. Hasyim Asy'ari Tebuireng Jombang, twitter @aananshori

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