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Desa Bahari: Hidup dan Mati dari Hiu

Para pengunjung di gugusan batu

PADA bulan November 2016, saya berkunjung ke desa ini. Desa Bahari namanya, terletak di ujung teluk Sampolawa, Buton Selatan, Sulawesi Tenggara. Desa ini dahulu bernama Desa Wapulaka. Penduduknya sebagian besar bermata pencaharian sebagai nelayan karena pemukiman warga di sepanjang pesisir pantai. Kaum perempuan umumnya mengolah kebun di balik perbukitan.

Saya mengunjungi desa ini karena ajakan seorang teman untuk menyaksikan acara pesta kampung. Pesta kampung dilakukan setiap tahun sebagai bagian dari rasa syukur karena setelah selesai masa panen, juga seremonial masyarakat setempat sebagai ajang silaturahmi. Pesta kampung biasanya dirayakan secara besar-besaran setiap tiga tahun.

Momen tiga tahunan ini dikenal dengan nama Pesta Adat Wapulaka. Walau telah berganti nama, akan tetapi penamaan pada acara pesta adat masih menggunakan nama desa yang lama.

Kemeriahan pesta adat Wapulaka (foto: Rustam Awat)

Di beberapa tempat di Buton Selatan yang merupakan suku Cia-Cia, pesta kampung selalu lebih meriah dibanding lebaran Idul Fitri. Karenanya, momen pulang kampung bagi perantau adalah saat pesta kampung. Setiap tahun para perantau saling bersilaturahmi dalam perayaan pesta kampung.

Semua larut dalam kegembiraan seakan merayakan hari kemenangan. Pesta kampung dengan segala kemeriahannya menghadirkan kekaguman pada saya sebagai seorang pendatang.

Selama tujuh hari tujuh malam tercipta kemeriahan di baruga (balai pertemuan adat). Di malam hari para pria, tua muda berkumpul sambil mendengar nasehat di baruga dari para tokoh adat mulai dari pukul 20.00 hingga pukul 03.00 dini hari.

Bagi yang tidak hadir akan dikenakan denda. Begitu juga dengan masyarakat di perantauan yang tak pulang kampung akan mengalami hal yang sama dengan jumlah denda yang berbeda. Kebijakan ini semata-mata dilakukan agar tercipta kemeriahan saat pesta kampung.

Menjelang hari ketujuh yang merupakan puncak acara, persiapan pesta kampung dilakukan dengan membuat sabuah di depan baruga. Sabuah dibuat dengan merangkai tiang-tiang bambu dan mengatapinya dengan terpal. Pekerjaan ini dilakukan oleh kaum laki-laki. Saat kaum pria bergotong royong membuat sabuah, di masing-masing rumah ibu-ibu sibuk mempersiapkan makanan yang akan dibawa pada acara pesta kampung.

Pada saat hari H, semua orang-orang tua berpakaian adat duduk bersila di dalam sabuah. Di hadapan mereka, gadis-gadis berpakaian tradisional yang menjaga talam siap untuk menyuapi mereka nantinya. Talam-talam berisi sajian kuliner tradisional ini akan dibuka saat acara posambua (menyuapi).

Sebelum acara posambua dimulai, terlebih dahulu sepasang bhisa (dukun perempuan) melantunkan kabanti (tembang) berisi tentang kisah pendirian kampung di masa lalu.

saat acara Posambua (foto: Rustam Awat)

Ketika bhisa selesai melantunkan kabanti, imam lalu berdoa dengan harapan agar masyarakat diberi kesehatan, keselamatan, hasil panen melimpah, dan kampung aman tentram. Selesai imam memanjatkan doa, gadis-gadis diperbolehkan untuk membuka penutup talam untuk menyuapi orang-orang tua di hadapannya. Gadis yang menyuapkan makanan akan diberi uang sesuai kerelaan atau keikhlasan orang-orang tua itu.

Begitu acara posambua selesai, isi talam akan dipindahkan ke baruga dan juga dibawa ke rumah-rumah penduduk. Sebagian sudut sabuah dikosongkan untuk acara selanjutnya yaitu manca (silat). Baik orang tua maupun anak-anak muda akan memperagakan seni bela diri silat tradisional.

Segala jurus dikeluarkan diiringi tabuhan gendang dan dentuman gong untuk menyelaraskan gerakan para pesilat. Para penonton di dalam dan di luar sabuah semakin riuh memberi semangat.

Para pesilat yang telah berusia sepuh (foto: Rustam Awat)

Sebagai pesta tiga tahunan yang dinanti-nanti, acara ini tak hanya tentang menyuapi dan manca saja. Acara akan ditutup dengan tari-tarian, salah satunya yaitu tari Ngibi. Tari ini diperagakan oleh anak-anak dan orang dewasa secara berpasangan.

Gerakan tari Ngibi yaitu si pria akan berjalan jinjit lalu berputar menyamping pada si wanita yang memakai selendang. Gerakan ini mengingatkan saya pada ayam jantan yang memutari ayam betina dengan kepakan sayap yang dimiringkan ketika ingin menarik hati sang betina. Tari Ngibi menjadi sajian penutup pesta kampung.

Tari Ngibi pada pesta adat Wapulaka (foto: Rustam Awat)

Setelah acara pesta kampung selesai, saya menyempatkan diri berjalan menyusuri kampung ini hingga ke ujungnya. Di depan mata tersaji keindahan yang memikat yaitu enam gugus batu di ujung kampung yang menjadi primadona bagi pendatang yang berkunjung ke desa ini.

Melihat batu-batu ini mengingatkan saya pada gugusan batu di Raja Ampat, Papua. Saat air laut surut, pengunjung biasanya mendekati gugusan batu ini untuk mengabadikan moment dengan berfoto.

Para pengunjung di gugusan batu (foto: Rustam Awat)

Puas menikmati keindahan alam di hari yang mulai terik, teman mengajak makan siang di rumah kerabatnya. Makan siang berupa menu kuliner tradisional yang merupakan isi talam pesta kampung yang dibawa pulang seusai acara. Makanan digelar di balai bambu di pesisir pantai.

Tak jauh dari situ, terdapat talud pemecah ombak untuk menghalau ombak musim barat dan timur. Di dekat talud berjajar kapal-kapal kayu. Sebagai daerah maritim yang penduduknya menggantungkan hidupnya pada laut, tak terlalu mengherankan bagi saya bila melihat kapal-kapal seperti ini di pesisir pantai.

Yang agak mengagetkan saya adalah cerita tentang kapal-kapal itu merupakan transportasi untuk memancing ikan hiu di lautan bebas. Semula saya menganggap bahwa ketakjuban saya pada desa ini telah berhenti pada keindahan alam di ujung kampung. Rupanya saya kembali dibuat terperangah dengan cerita tentang para pemburu hiu.

Dari perbincangan seusai makan inilah saya tahu bahwa desa ini merupakan desa yang orang tua dan pemudanya berjibaku dengan hiu selama berbulan-bulan di laut lepas, sebelum akhirnya pulang dengan membawa pundi-pundi uang, hasil dari menimbang sirip, minyak hati, dan daging (dendeng) hiu.

Hiu telah menjadi prioritas mereka dalam melaut. Besarnya pendapatan dalam setiap menimbang organ-organ dalam tubuh ikan hiu menggiurkan para pemuda untuk memilih pekerjaan ini ketika tidak lagi melanjutkan sekolah atau kuliah.

Sistem memancing ikan hiu disebut rawe yaitu menggunakan tali pancing nilon dengan jarak setiap kail sekitar 10-15 depa. Dalam satu rawe dipasang sebanyak 200 hingga 250 kail, yang diantarai oleh pelampung pada setiap 3-5 kail dan ditandai dengan bendera pada setiap 25 kail.

Bila dihitung maka rawe yang dipasang sepanjang 4-5 kilometer. Biasanya rawe dipasang pada sore hari dan akan dicek pada keesokan harinya. Para pemancing biasanya menggunakan ikan tongkol sebagai umpan.

Perburuan ikan hiu dilakukan dalam jangka waktu empat hingga enam bulan dengan wilayah jelajah, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Selayar, Makassar, Kalimantan, Maluku (Dobo, Saumlaki) hingga perbatasan Australia.

Setiap bulannya perahu-perahu tersebut naik ke darat untuk menimbang hasil tangkapan berupa sirip, daging, dan juga minyak hati ikan hiu. Biasanya hiu-hiu tersebut ditimbang di wilayah dekat penangkapan. Dalam sekali menimbang, mereka dapat memperoleh pendapatan 20-100 juta.

Banyaknya pendapatan nelayan desa Bahari dipengaruhi oleh naiknya harga sirip, minyak hati, dan daging hiu. Harga dendeng yang semula 8 ribu/kilo kini menjadi 15 ribu. Minyak hati ikan hiu dihargai 300 ribu/kilo. Belum lagi sirip ikan hiu yang merupakan inti dari perburuan ikan ini.

Sirip ikan hiu kualitas A super per kilo dibanderol dengan harga 1 juta 50 ribu/kilo. Ukuran sirip kualitas A super mulai dari 34-40 cm, sedangkan super B ditimbang dengan harga 800-900 ribu/kilo.

Kapal Ikan para nelayan (foto: Rustam Awat)

Meskipun harga sirip mahal, permintaan pasar tak menjadi berkurang karena para pembeli percaya sirip hiu dapat meningkatkan stamina. Sedangkan, minyak hati hiu bermanfaat untuk menurunkan kadar kolesterol, mencegah penyakit kanker, mencegah alzheimer, meningkatkan fungsi otak, detoks racun yang ada di dalam tubuh, menjaga kadar gula darah, dan menurunkan potensi penyakit jantung.

Hasil perburuan hiu yang begitu menggiurkan kadang membuat para nelayan ini lupa bila telah memasuki wilayah perairan negara lain. Pada 8 Oktober 2017 dilaporkan bahwa lima orang dari desa Bahari ditangkap oleh otoritas keimigrasian Australia karena diduga melakukan penangkapan ikan hiu di wilayah perairan Australia. Bukan kali ini saja para pemburu hiu ini ditangkap. Sebelum tahun 2000 ada yang ditangkap di Australia dan Timor Timur. Kapal dan nelayannya dipulangkan ke Indonesia, sedangkan peralatan tangkap dan hasil tangkapan disita.

Terhitung sejak tanggal 14 september 2014, ada lima spesies hiu yang dilindungi oleh Konvensi Perdagangan Internasional Terhadap Satwa dan Tumbuhan yang Terancam Punah. Perburuan hiu seakan menjadi dilema. Di satu sisi hiu dikategorikan sebagai ikan yang dilindungi, namun di lain sisi hiu diburu secara besar-besaran untuk kebutuhan ekonomi masyarakat Bahari. Sekitar 100 kapal di desa ini menggantungkan hidupnya pada perburuan ikan bergigi gergaji ini.

Hiu boleh menjadi predator puncak yang paling ditakuti oleh makhluk penghuni laut, dan memiliki peranan penting dalam menjaga ekosistem laut. Namun hiu merupakan ikan yang paling banyak diburu oleh nelayan untuk diperdagangkan. Ketika permintaan sirip, minyak hati, dan daging hiu meningkat, itu berarti populasi hiu akan menjadi semakin berkurang dari tahun ke tahun.

Bahari, desa yang telah membuat saya kagum pada pesta kampung, pemandangan alam, dan terlebih kisah para pemburu hiu.

Rustam Awat

Rustam Awat

akademisi, pejalan, pemotret

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Rustam Awat

Rustam Awat

akademisi, pejalan, pemotret

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