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PENGENDALIAN HAMA LALAT BUAH PADA PERTANAMAN SALAK DI KABUPATEN MAGELANG

Kabupaten Magelang dikenal penghasil salak nglumut di Jawa Tengah dengan sentra pengembangan tersebar di beberapa kecamatan. Salah satu terbesar di antaranya Kecamatan Srumbung yang terletak di lereng Gunung Merapi. Daerah ini subur dan sangat cocok untuk budidaya salak karena mengandung banyak bahan organik dengan tingkat keasaman tanah yang netral.

Saat ini produksi salak asal Magelang sudah memasuki pasar ekspor Singapura, China, Kamboja dan Jerman melalui perantara asosiasi atau perusahaan eksportir. Petani di Kecamatan Srumbung menjalin kemitraan dengan Paguyuban Salak Pondoh Mitra Turindo yang berlokasi di Kecamatan Turi, Kabupaten Sleman, Yogyakarta.

Selain pasar ekspor, salak Magelang juga mengisi beberapa pasar di luar Jawa Tengah, seperti DKI Jakarta, Jawa Timur, Banten, Sumatera, Riau dan Kalimantan. Sementara ini pertanaman petani banyak terserang hama lalat buah (Bactrocera spp). Untuk melindungi dan mengurangi kerugian yang diakibatkan oleh lalat buah, perlu dilakukan tindakan pencegahan dan pengendalian sesegera mungkin.

Dalam rangka pengendalian lalat buah pada pertanaman di Jawa Tengah khususnya Magelang dan Banjarnegara, UPTD Balai Proteksi Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura Provinsi Jawa Tengah melalui Laboratorium Pengamatan Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura (LPHPTPH) Temanggung dan Banyumas siap mengawal dan mendampingi petani di lapangan.

Area pengelolaan lalat buah skala luas di Kecamatan Srumbung, Magelang meliputi 448 hektare. Lokasi pemasangan perangkap berada di desa yaitu Desa Sidomoro (Gapoktan Ngadi Luhur), Desa Nglumut (Gapoktan Nglumut Makmur) dan Desa Sudimoro (Kelompok Tani Sekar Arum). Cara pengendalian lalat buah yang diterapkan adalah pemasangan perangkap atraktan ME serta konservasi musuh alami dengan menanam refugia.

Pemasangan perangkap pengendalian sebanyak 20 perangkap per hektare sementara perangkap pengamatan sebanyak 10 buah dalam luasan 50 hektare. Monitoring populasi lalat buah dilakukan seminggu sekali dengan cara menghitung jumla lalat buah yang terperangkap.

Sri Wijayanti Yusuf, Direktur Perlindungan Hortikultura pada kesempatan terpisah menyampaikan keberhasilan pengendalian lalat buah dapat tercapai apabila dilakukan secara serentak dalam area yang luas.

“Keberhasilan pengendalian lalat buah dapat tercapai apabila dilakukan secara serentak dalam area yang luas dan dilakukan secara berkesinambungan dengan melibatkan instansi terkait,” ujar Yanti.

Ditambahkan Irma Siregar, Kasi Sarana Pengendalian OPT Buah dan Florikultura, selain penggunaan perangkap atraktan ME, dapat juga dilakukan teknik pengendalian ramah lingkungan lainnya.

“Kumpulkan buah salak yang busuk terserang lalat buah kemudian dimusnahkan dengan teknik 4 M (Mengubur, Membakar, Membungkus dan Merebus). Selanjutnya kumpulkan buah terserang lalat buah dalam gentong atau drum plastik yang permukaannya ditutup dengan kain kassa,” ujar Irma.

Dengan cara ini, lanjut Irma, diharapkan lalat yang menetas tidak dapat lolos dari gentong namun parasitoidnya dapat terbang bebas. Langkah selanjutnya memanfaatkan musuh alami sebagai upaya konservasi musuh alami dengan menanaman tanaman refugia disekitar kebun salak sebagai tempat hidup parasitoid. Hal terpenting turut melakukan sanitasi kebun secara intensif.

“Untuk mendukung upaya ekspor salak Magelang ke beberapa negara tujuan, Kementerian Pertanian melalui Direktorat Jenderal Hortikultura akan terus mengawal petani secara intensif dalam pelaksanaan pengelolaan lalat buah secara mandiri,” jelas Yanti.

Berdasarkan data BPS, ekspor salak pada 2017 sebanyak 965 ton sementara pada 2018, ekspor sebanyak 1.233 ton. Ini artinya mengalami peningkatan 27,72 persen dari 2017.

Dirinya meyakini apabila petani melakukan dengan konsisten dan komitmen tinggi maka masalah lalat buah dapat teratasi. Mutu salak Magelang dapat meningkat serta dapat bersaing di pasar dalam negeri maupun luar negeri.

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