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KUALITAS BUAH NAGA ORGANIK BANYUWANGI

Kabupaten Banyuwangi merupakan salah satu sentra produksi buah naga. Luas pertanaman buah naga mencapai 16 ribu hektare. Tanaman buah naga dibudidayakan sebagai kebun monokultur, tanaman tumpang sari atau tanaman sela. Hampir semua petani di Banyuwangi menanam buah naga.

Masyarakat biasa pun banyak yang menanam buah ini sebagai tanaman pagar atau tanaman pekarangan. Tanaman buah naga mudah ditanam dan tidak sulit dalam perawatan. Ditopang oleh kondisi tanah yang subur dan cuaca panas menjadikan buah naga tumbuh subur di kabupaten ini.

Buah naga dengan daging buah berwarna merah dominan dibudidayakan di kabupaten tersebut. Musim panen buah naga biasa terjadi saat musim penghujan, antara September sampai Maret. Meski demikian, buah ini tersedia sepanjang waktu karena petani sudah menerapkan teknologi pengaturan pembuahan menggunakan lampu penerangan listrik di kebunnya.

Pemberian cahaya lampu itu untuk meningkatkan produksi buah naga. Jika pada umumnya buah naga memiliki masa panen 6 bulan sekali maka dengan teknik penyinaran yang tepat tanaman buah naga bisa panen di luar musim.

Hasilnya, buah yang lazimnya hanya berbuah pada musim tertentu, bisa berbuah hampir sepanjang tahun. Panen buah naga berturut – turut dilakukan antara 6 – 7 bulan. Pada tahun pertama, setiap tiang berisi empat pohon tanaman buah naga dapat menghasilkan buah sekitar 4 kg.

Di antara ribuan hektare kebun buah naga, terdapat petani yang mengembangkan buah naga secara organik. Salah satunya kebun buah milik Kelompok Tani Sinar Cabe berlokasi di Desa Sumbermulyo, Kecamatan Pesanggaran, Kabupaten Banyuwangi. Kebun buah seluas 5 hektare ini rencananya akan diperluas lagi.

Kelompok tani tersebut tidak takut bersaing dengan produk buah naga berukuran besar yang dibudidayakan secara konvensional. Konvensional dimaksud adalah selama budidaya menggunakan pestisida guna mengatasi organisme pengganggu tumbuhan (OPT). Ini belum termasuk penggunaaan hormon memperbesar buah.

“Untuk menjaga kesehatan tanaman, anggota kelompok tani secara bersama membuat pupuk organik serta bahan pengendali OPT. Alhamdulillah serangan OPT di lapangan dapat terkendali. Ukuran buah naga rata – rata 700 gram per buah,” ucap Sumartini, pengurus Kelompok Tani Sinar Cabe.

Bahan pengendali OPT yang diterapkan antara lain menggunakan agens hayati Trichoderma, bakteri merah, Plant Growth – Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) dan pestisida nabati. Sementara itu, untuk memperbesar ukuran buah dibuat dengan mencampur bahan organik antara lain rebung, kecambah, air kelapa, tetes (cairan gula merah), laktobasilus, dedaunan dan bonggol pisang.

“Bahan – bahan tersebut ditumbuk dan difermentasikan selama 21 hari. Selanjutnya aplikasi dapat dilakukan dengan mencampur 200 ml dalam 14 liter (1 tangki),” lanjut Sumartini.

Sejak 2017, kebun buah naga Kelompok Tani Sinar Cabe juga merupakan tempat wisata agro petik buah. Pengunjung dapat memakan buah naga sepuasnya di kebun dengan membayar tiket masuk Rp 15 ribu per orang. Di samping itu, kelompok tani tersebut juga sering menerima kunjungan dari siswa sebagai tempat pembelajaran pertanian. Hal ini memberikan nilai tambah bagi kebun buah.

Dalam kunjungannya, Anik Kustaryati Kepala Subdirektorat Pengendalian OPT Buah dan Florikultura, berharap agar pengendalian OPT ramah lingkungan terus dipertahankan. Penanaman refugia di sekitar pertanaman buah naga berfungsi sebagai konservasi musuh alami/parasitoid, yaitu menyediakan tempat hidupnya. Dengan tetap mempertahankan pertanian organik maka akan menghasilkan produk aman konsumsi sekaligus menjaga kelestarian lingkungan.

Untuk mendorong berkembangnya prinsip – prinsip pertanian organik ramah lingkungan, Kementerian Pertanian memprogramkan pengembangan 1000 desa pertanian organik. Pengembangan 1000 desa pertanian organik menjadi nawacita Presiden terkait peningkatan daya saing dan perwujudan kemandirian ekonomi melalui kedaulatan pangan. Direktorat Jenderal Hortikultura mendapatkan alokasi 250 pengembangan desa organik yang disebarkan ke 24 provinsi di Indonesia.

Secara terpisah, Direktur Perlindungan Hortikultura Sri Wijayanti Yusuf mengemukakan bahwa Kementerian Pertanian bersama jajaran UPTD Balai Proteksi Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura (BPTPH) serta Laboratorium Pengamatan Hama dan Penyakit/Laboratorium Agens Hayati terus mengembangkan dan menyebarluaskan teknologi pengendalian OPT secara ramah lingkungan. Petugas di lapang siap mendampingi petani dalam mengembangkan pertanian organik.

“Diharapkan ke depan penerapan budidaya tanaman hortikultura secara ramah lingkungan khususnya tanaman buah naga semakin luas. Keuntungan buah naga organik antara lain aman konsumsi, lebih tahan lama disimpan, warna kulit buah lebih cerah dan rasa buahnya lebih manis,” jelas Sri.

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