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KETANGGUHAN PETANI JAMUR KABUPATEN SUBANG

Pak Tarbin, demikian dipanggil, dikenal sebagai pionir petani jamur di Kabupaten Subang sejak 1996. Keterampilan dan kemampuan membudidayakan jamur dimulai seiring bertanam padi.

Omzet bertanam jamur merang mencapai puncaknya pada 2002, di mana Tarbin mampu memiliki 15 unit kumbung dengan kapasitas produksi 150 kg per hari. Diakui Tarbin, saat itu dirinya mampu meraup keuntungan besar. 7Seiring perjalanan waktu, kumbung yang tersisa tinggal 11 unit dengan produksi berkisar antara 16 ā€“ 60 kg per hari.

Pendapatan dalam 1 kumbung untuk 1 kali tanam jika harga pembelian di petani Rp 26 ribu, maka margin keuntungan yang dinikmati oleh Tarbin sekitar 42% dari modal. Saat ini harga di tingkat pasar berkisar Rp 28 – 30 ribu per kg.

“Meski terbilang eksis namun sebenarnya produksi jamur merang dari tahun ke tahun terus menurun. Ini disebabkan perubahan iklim dan sulitnya mendapatkan benih jamur merang berkualitas baik,” ujar Tarbin. Tahun 2018 lalu cuaca cukup panas sehingga produktivitas jamur per kumbung menurun. “Biasanya produksi minimal 350 kg, saat ini hanya mencapai 280 kg,” ungkapnya.

Kesulitan lain yang dihadapi petani jamur merang adalah keterbatasan bahan baku media tanam untuk produksi. “Bahan untuk media tanam seperti dedak, merang atau jerami yang berkualitas baik kebetulan juga lagi sulit didapatkan. Petani menggunakan mesin panen untuk memanen, dipotong pada tengah batang sedangkan pangkal batang ke tengah tertinggal di lahan”, terang Tarbin. “Padahal jerami bagian pangkal batang inilah yang tahan sebagai media tanam jamur merang.”

Sebagaimana diketahui, jamur merang (Volvariella volvacea) merupakan salah satu komoditas sayuran yang prospektif dan potensial untuk dikomersialkan oleh para petani dan pengusaha agribisnis Indonesia.

Jamur merang merupakan sayuran bernilai gizi, diyakini berkhasiat menyembuhkan berbagai jenis penyakit dan bernilai ekonomi tinggi. Harga jualnya relatif stabil setiap waktu. Lokasi kumbung produksi Tarbin terletak di Desa Gunung Sembung, Kecamatan Pegaden. Saat ini sentra jamur merang di Kabupaten Subang menyebar di empat kecamatan yakni Pangaden, Pagaden Barat, Ciasem dan Sukasari. Sementara sentra jamur tiram terdapat di Kecamatan Jalancagak, Kota Subang dan Tanjung Siang.

Kasie Sayuran Dinas Pertanian Kabupaten Subang, Yatie menyebut pemasaran jamur merang yang ideal harus berorientasi pasar. “Kegiatan produksi dan pemasaran harus dilakukan dengan mengakomodasi keinginan konsumen. Konsekuensinya, pengembangan jamur merang harus mempertimbangkan aspek keunggulan komparatif dan kompetitif. Jamur merang yang dipasarkan harus dapat berkompetisi dari sisi kualitas, harga dan kesinambungan pasokannya.”

Permintaan pasar dalam negeri terus meningkat sementara produksi masih terbatas, ini bisa membuka peluang impor jamur. “Namun perlu diperhatikan seksama penyakit dan hama jamur seperti Trichoderma sp, Neurospora spp, Penicillium spp dan lalat jamur,” jelas Yatie.

Kasubdit Sayuran Daun dan Jamur, Indra Husni saat mengunjungi lokasi mengatakan Ditjen Hortikultura berupaya untuk meningkatkan produksi jamur karena saat ini permintaan pasar sangat tinggi. Saat ini kebutuhan pasar belum bisa dipenuhi oleh petani jamur. “Peluang usaha budidaya dan usaha olahan jamur masih terbuka luas. Memang harus dicarikan bahan media tanam alternatif seperti serbuk gergaji, kapas atau ampas tandan sawit. Kegigihan dan konsistensi Pak Tarbin ini patut dicontoh generasi tani jaman now, kaum milenial,” ungkap Indra.

Jamur merang mempunyai umur simpan kurang dari satu hari atau maksimum satu hari. Dalam beberapa jam setelah dipanen, jamur merang menjadi lembek, berubah warna, dan mulai membusuk meskipun jamur dipanen waktu stadia tudung jamur masih kuncup. “Sifat seperti itu cukup menyulitkan petani dan pedagang dalam melakukan bisnisnya,” tambah Indra.

Indra mengungkapkan, penanganan pasca panen penting dilakukan. Jamur merang bisa dikemas menggunakan keranjang panen berbahan plastik agar tahan terhadap benturan dan memiliki sirkulasi udara yang baik. “Jamur jangan sampai terpapar sinar matahari langsung dalam waktu yang lama dan diusahakan tidak terkena air, karena bisa cepat rusak,” pungkas Indra.

Dihubungi terpisah, Direktur Sayuran dan Tanaman Obat Bapak Moh. Ismail Wahab sangat mendukung pengembangan usaha tani jamur, “Usaha tani jamur sangat sesuai dengan visi dari Direktorat Sayuran dan Tanaman Obat yaitu budidaya berbasis ramah lingkungan selain memiliki manfaat bagi kesehatan di antaranya kandungan anti oksidan yang tinggi.”

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