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Kementan Dorong Peningkatan Ekspor Buah-Buahan Melalui Penerapan GAP dan Registrasi Kebun

Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir ini, Kementan fokus dalam peningkatan produksi hortikultura berpotensi ekspor. Cabai, bawang merah, bawang putih, jeruk, mangga, manggis, pisang, krisan dan dracaena terus didorong dalam bentuk pengembangan kawasan di daerah sentra produksi.

“Tidak kurang dari 9 ribu hektare setiap tahunnya APBN dikucurkan untuk membentuk kawasan-kawasan buah dan florikultura,” ujar Sri Wijayanti Yusuf, Plt. Direktur Buah dan Florikultura saat membuka acara Sosialisasi Penerapan GAP Buah dan Florikultura di Bogor, Jumat (22/3).

Direktur yang biasa dipanggil Yanti ini menyebutkan bantuan pemerintah berupa program pengembangan kawasan walaupun hanya sebagai stimulan namun mampu mendorong minat petani untuk menanam buah-buahan.

“Tak heran jika kita lihat dari angka BPS, produksi buah meningkat. Produksi buah nasional pada 2017 sebesar 19,6 juta ton. Angka prognosa pada 2018 mencapai 20,2 juta ton atau meningkat 2,9 persen,” jelas Yanti.

Tidak hanya itu, ekspor komoditas buah – buahan juga menunjukkan peningkatan signifikan. Pada 2018 ekspor buah – buahan mencapai 89,3 ribu ton atau mengalami peningkatan 53 persen dibanding tahun sebelumnya tercatat 41,4 ribu ton.

Buah yang masuk ke pasar luar negeri harus memenuhi persyaratan mutu terjamin dan berasal dari kebun Good Agriculture Practices (GAP). Pedoman Budidaya Buah dan Sayur yang Baik di Indonesia (Good Agricultural Practices for Fruit and Vegetables) diatur dalam Peraturan Menteri Pertanian Nomor 48/Permentan/OT.140/10/2009. Ini mencakup aspek penerapan teknologi ramah lingkungan, penjagaan kesehatan dan peningkatan kesejahteraan pekerja, pencegahan penularan organisme pengangu tanaman (OPT) hingga riwayat produk yang memenuhi prinsip traceability (dapat ditelusuri asal usulnya, sejak dari kebun).

Perwujudan penerapan budidaya buah dan sayur yang baik dinyatakan dengan penerbitan nomor registrasi yang diberikan sebagai hasil penilaian kebun/lahan usaha. Registrasi kebun GAP saat ini sudah menjadi tuntutan pasar gobal sebagai jaminan mutu produk buah yang diekspor.

Yanti menambahkan, “Saat ini GAP Indonesia (IndoGAP) sedang dalam tahap harmonisasi dengan ASEAN GAP. Komponen dalam GAP Indonesia baru mencapai 50 persen jika dibandingkan dengan ASEAN GAP, jika GAP kita sudah _fully adopted_ dengan ASEAN GAP maka produk buah kita yang berasal dari kebun yang menerapkan GAP akan diterima di pasar internasional.”

Selanjutnya Yanti menyampaikan bahwa petani akan berkomitmen dalam menerapkan GAP jika memiliki pasar yang jelas. Oleh karena itu kemitraan dengan pelaku usaha, pedagang, retailer, pasar modern dan eksportir perlu terus ditingkatkan. Saat ini lebih dari 7 ribu kebun buah telah teregistrasi, namun hanya sedikit yang masih berkomitmen menerapkan GAP. Kondisi ini disebabkan pasar yang belum jelas.

Melihat fakta dan kondisi tersebut, pada 2019 Kementan kembali fokus mendorong penerapan GAP dan registrasi kebun di samping pengembangan kawasan.

“Tahun ini kita menargetkan 900 kebun buah dan florikultura teregistrasi GAP di 10 provinsi dan 18 kabupaten yang terfokus pada komoditas berorientasi ekspor seperti mangga, manggis, pisang, nenas, salak, jeruk, sedangkan untuk komoditas florikultura adalah dracaena, krisan dan melati,” lanjut Yanti, “Petani kita latih melalui kegiatan Sekolah Lapang GAP, kita dampingi dalam menerapkan GAP dan kebunnya kita registrasi.”

Selanjutnya buah yang berasal dari kebun teregistrasi selanjutnya dapat diusulkan untuk disertifikasi Prima 3, Prima 2 dan Prima 1 oleh Otoritas Kompetensi dan Keamanan Pangan (OKKP) baik pusat maupun daerah. Label sertifikat Prima ini menunjukkan jaminan mutu dan keamanan pangan produk buah tersebut.

Hadir dalam kegiatan Sosialisasi Penerapan GAP Buah dan Florikultura tersebut, Dr. Sumarno Direktur Jenderal Hortikultura pertama, menyampaikan bahwa GAP mulai diinisasi sejak tahun 2002 di Eropa. Penerapan GAP merupakan pembatas yang bersifat _non tarif barrier_ yang diberlakukan di negara-negara maju. Produk yang berasal dari kebun yang menerapkan GAP adalah produk yang bermutu, aman konsumsi dan bebas dari pestisida.

“Petani yang mau menerapkan GAP memiliki banyak keuntungan. Produk bersertifikat mudah dijual dengan harga tinggi, petani menjadi profesional dan bertangungjawab terhadap mutu produk. Konsumen mendapatkan jaminan mutu dan keamanan pangan, keselamatan pekerja dilindungi dan lingkungan sumber daya pertanian terpelihara,” jelas Sumarno.

Sri Sulasmi, ahli standardisasi dalam bidang pertanian menyampaikan bahwa pengendalian dan pengawasan keamanan pangan dilakukan melalui tiga tahap yaitu pendataan/identifikasi petani yang menerapkan GAP, pendaftaran berupa kegiatan registrasi kebun yang telah menerapkan GAP dan sertifikasi produk yang berasal dari kebun registrasi. Penerapan GAP merupakan inisiasi awal menuju jaminan mutu.

“Perangkat kita sudah lengkap, sistem sudah terbentuk, panduan sudah tersedia, pasar sudah menuntut adanya jaminan mutu, dengan demikian GAP sudah selayaknya harus diterapkan dan terus disosialisasikan kepada petani,” ujar Sulasmi.

Yanti, Sumarno maupun Sulasmi optimistis bahwa jika semua pihak yang terlibat baik pemerintah, petani maupun pelaku usaha berkomitmen dalam penerapan GAP, maka mutu buah Indonesia akan terjamin dan semakin berdaya saing di pasar internasional.

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