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Kata Siapa Petani Kita Tidak sejahtera?

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Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) mencatat, hingga 2018 ini, daya beli petani secara nasional menunjukkan tren positif dibanding bulan sebelumnya. Dengan begitu, secara tidak langsung berdampak positif terhadap tingkat kesejahteraan petani.

Data BPS menyebutkan pada Maret 2015, penduduk miskin di Indonesia masih sebesar 11,22%. Akan tetapi pada Maret 2016 turun menjadi 10,86%, dan pada Maret 2017 turun lagi menjadi 10,64%. Sampai September 2017, penduduk miskin di Indonesia masih di angka 2 digit, yaitu 10,12% (26,58 juta jiwa). Penurunan penduduk miskin kembali berlanjut pada Maret tahun ini (2018) hingga telah menembus angka di bawah satu digit, yaitu 9,82% (25,96 juta jiwa).

Kepala Biro Hubungan Masyarakat dan Informasi Publik, Kementerian Pertanian (Kementan), Kuntoro Boga Andri menyebutkan mengingat sebagian besar petani tinggal di perdesaan, sehingga indikator kesejahteraan petani juga dapat dilihat dari tingkat kemiskinan maupun gini rasio di perdesaan. Jika dibandingkan dengan tahun sebelumnya jumlah penduduk miskin saat ini di perdesaan semakin berkurang. Pada Maret 2015, jumlah penduduk miskin di perdesaan sebesar 14,21%, Maret 2016 dan Maret 2017 berturut-turut turun menjadi 14,11% dan 13,93%, dan pada Maret 2018 ini juga turun dan menjadi 13,20%.

“Dengan memperhatikan pergerakan data ini sudah jelas terlihat bahwa jumlah penduduk miskin di perdesaan terus menurun,” demikian dikatakan Kuntoro Boga dalam Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional IV Perkumpulan Agroteknologi/Agroekoteknologi Indonesia (PAGI) di Makassar, Senin (10/9/2018). Kegiatan ini diselenggarakan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Muslim Indonesia dengan mengangkat tema “Inovasi Teknologi Pertanian Lahan Kering dalam Mewujudkan Kemandirian Pangan Nasional Berkelanjutan”.

Kuntoro Boga pun menjelaskan peningkatan kesejahteraan di pedesaan pun dapat dilihat dari Nilai Tukar Petani dan Nilai Tukar Usaha Pertanian. Di bulan Agustus 2018 ini, NTP kembali naik, yakni sebesar 102,56 atau naik 0,89 persen. Harga Gabah Kering Panen di Tingkat Petani naik 3,05 persen dan Harga Beras Medium di Penggilingan turun 0,28 persen. Kenaikan NTP dikarenakan Indeks Harga yang Diterima Petani (It) naik sebesar 0,75 persen, sementara Indeks Harga yang Dibayar Petani (Ib) turun sebesar 0,14 persen.

Begitu pun Nilai Tukar Usaha Rumah Tangga Pertanian nasional Agustus 2018 sebesar 112,08 atau naik 0,48% dibanding NTUP bulan sebelumnya. Data BPS pun mencatat, pada periode Agustus 2018 terjadi deflasi perdesaan di Indonesia sebesar 0,32%, disebabkan oleh penurunan indeks kelompok Bahan Makanan yang cukup besar, sementara indeks kelompok penyusun Indeks Konsumsi Rumah Tangga (IKRT) lainnya naik.

“Tren positif kenaikan NTP menunjukkan adanya peningkatan kemampuan daya beli. Semakin tinggi NTP, akan semakin kuat tingkat kemampuan atau daya beli petani. Daya beli petani pada Agustus 2018 ini tidak hanya lebih tinggi dibanding bulan sebelumnya, akan tetap jika dibandingkan Agustus 2017, daya beli petani pada Mei 2018 ini pun lebih tinggi. NTP pada Agusuts 2017 lalu hanya 101,60. NTP di bulan Agustus 2018 ini lebih yaitu 112,08. Jadi dari kedua nilai tukar ini yang semakin naik, penduduk di pedesaan terbukti semakin sejahtera,” jelas dia.

Karena itu, Kuntoro Boga menegaskan Kementan optimis raihan positif ini terus berlanjut. Pasalnya, Kementan selalu berkomitmen untuk menjalankan program pertanian yang secara signifikan meningkatkan produksi pangan dan kesejahteraan langsung. Di tahun 2018 ini, Kementan sedang menjalankan Program Bedah Kemiskinan Rakyat Sejahtera. Sasaranya tiada lain untuk menurunkan tingkat kemiskinana masyarakat petani yang tinggal di desa.

“Selain itu, program Kementan yang menyasar langsung penurunan kemiskinan yakni optimasi penggunaan alat mesin pertanian. Program ini merupakan salah satu upaya pemberdayaan petani dilakukan dengan membangun jiwa kewirausahaan petani dan penguatan kelembagaan petani,” tegasnya.

“Dengan mekanisasi, para petani dapat berproduksi lebih efisien, lebih cepat, dan lebih produktif, serta menghasilkan produk berkualitas. Penggunaan teknologi dan mekanisasi ini mampu menarik minat generasi muda terjun ke pertanian,” sambungnya.

Terpisah, sebelumnya Ketua Umum Kontak Tani Nelayan Andalan (KTNA), Winarno Tohir menuturkan kondisi lapangan saat ini produksi gabah sedang melimpah, sehingga kesejahteraan petani memang terbukti. Akan tetapi kondisi tersebut bertentangan dengan kebijakan impor jilid II, sehingga petani dirugikan.

“Karena itu, tidak seharusnya Kementerian Perdagangan melalukan impor yang kedua. Petani yang kondisinya saat ini sejahtera, ke depan bisa dirugikan,” tuturnya.

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