Ekonomi Cina Baik-Baik Saja

Wakil Perdana Menteri Liu He percaya bahwa “tekanan eksternal” yang sedang melanda perekonomian Cina tak bisa dihindari, dan justru dapat meningkatkan inovasi dan pengembangan dalam negeri.

Liu, penasihat ekonomi tertinggi Presiden Xi Jinping, dan kepala negosiator perdagangan dengan AS, menyetujui pernyataan yang minggu lalu diberikan oleh gubernur Bank Rakyat Cina, Yi Gang, bahwa Beijing memiliki alat kebijakan yang cukup untuk mengatasi resiko dan kesulitan dalam memastikan pertumbuhan jangka panjang ekonomi Cina tetap logis.

Dia tidak menyebutkan secara langsung tentang perang dagang AS-Cina dalam pidatonya di forum finansial Lujiazui pada Kamis lalu, namun mengatakan bahwa masih ada ruang terbuka dalam sistem makroekonomi Cina untuk mendukung pertumbuhan serta perubahan baru-baru ini oleh pemerintah, yaitu mengurangi pajak dan biaya administratif pemerintah. Kebijakan-kebijakan baru ini mulai memberikan dampak positif pada ekonomi.

“Kami memang menghadapi tekanan eksternal saat ini, namun hal ini adalah ujian yang tak dapat dihindari sebagai pengalaman dalam meningkatkan perekonomian Cina,” kata Liu dalam forum, yang merupakan acara tahunan oleh pemerintah Shanghai dan Bank Rakyat Cina. “Tekanan eksternal akan membantu kami meningkatkan inovasi dan perkembangan secara mandiri, mempercepat reformasi dan terus melaju dengan pertumbuhan ekonomi berkualitas tinggi.”

Sebelumnya, Liu telah mengkritisi ekonom yang hanya berfokus pada kelemahan perekonomian Cina dalam data bulanan ekonomi, namun mengabaikan tren positif yang mendukung pertumbuhan jangka panjang dalam negara dengan ekonomi terbesar kedua di dunia tersebut.

Pekerjaan, harga konsumen, dan keseimbangan neraca pembayaran Cina tetap berada pada skala yang “masuk akal”, menurut Liu, meski indeks harga konsumen Cina sempat menyentuh angka terginggi pada bulan Mei dalam 15 bulan terakhir. Sebagian kenaikan ini diakibatkan oleh naiknya harga daging babi dan buah segar.

“Apapun yang terjadi sementara ini, pertumbuhan ekonomi Cina dalam jangka panjang tetap bernilai positif, dan hal ini tidak akan berubah,” kata Liu, “Setelah krisis finansial global, sistem finansial kita terbukti stabil. Pertumbuhan utang dalam sistem ini telah dibatasi.”

Pidato dalam forum, yang merupakan penampilan publik pertama Liu sejak menemani Xi dalam tur ke provinsi Jiangxi tiga minggu lalu, hanya dikonfirmasi pada menit-menit terakhir. Tadinya, pidato dalam forum tersebut diumumkan sebagai pidato oleh “pimpinan Dewan Negara”.

Dalam sikap yang tidak biasa, Liu menggunakan grafik dan slide, baik dalam Bahasa Cina maupun Bahasa Inggris, untuk berpidato di hadapan bankir dan investor asal Cina maupun dari luar negeri, serta pejabat-pejabat Cina lainnya termasuk kepala Komisi Pengaturan Perbankan dan Asuransi Guo Shuqing, serta gubernur Bank Rakyat Cina Yi.

Belum jelas apakah Liu akan melanjutkan pembicaraan tentang dagang mewakili Cina, pada pertemuan antara Xi dengan presiden AS Donald Trump, di pertemuan G20 akhir Juni nanti.

“Kami menyadari pihak AS telah menunjukkan niat bahwa kedua presiden harus bertemu saat pertemuan G20 akhir bulan ini. Saat ini saya tidak punya informasi baru untuk disampaikan tentang perdagangan Cina-AS,” kata Menteri Perdagangan Cina Gao Feng saat konferensi pers rutin Kamis lalu, “Tak ada yang disepakati sebelum semua hal disepakati.”

Sejak pembicaraan terakhir di Washington, yang dihadiri oleh Liu, AS telah menaikkan tarif untuk barang-barang dari Cina senilai 200 milyar dolar AS, dari 10 persen menjadi 25 persen, sementara Trump telah mengancam akan mengenakan tarif untuk impor senilai 300 miliar dolar AS yang belum termasuk dalam pajak.

“AS menggunakan kekuatan negara untuk menekan perusahaan-perusahaan Cina dan menyamaratakan konsep keamanan nasional. Sikap ini adalah sikap yang menimbulkan distorsi dalam pasar,” tambah Gao, “AS adalah negara yang bersikap ingkar dan tidak jujur dalam perdagangan, yaitu dengan menaikkan tensi perdagangan secara sepihak dan membuat negosiasi menemui jalan buntu.”



Artikel ini ditulis oleh Sidney Leng dan dipublikasikan di South China Morning Post




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