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Daya Tarik Ekonomis Jeruk RGL

Indonesia merupakan negara tropis kaya berbagai jenis jeruk yang dapat dikembangkan mulai dari dataran rendah hingga dataran tinggi. Jeruk Rimau Gerga Lebong (RGL) merupakan salah satu produk hortikultura potensial di Provinsi Bengkulu. Merujuk data BPS, produksi nasional jeruk siam atau keprok di Indonesia pada 2017 sebanyak 2.165.183,8 ton dan pada 2018 sebesar 2.176.596,9 ton.

Jeruk RGL merupakan hasil persilangan jeruk manis (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) dan jeruk keprok (Citrus reticulta Blanco). Tanaman ini beradaptasi dengan baik di dataran tinggi dengan ketinggian 900 – 1.200 m dpl.

Ciri utama ukuran daun besar dan kaku serta kulit buah yang tebal. Karakteristik fisik jeruk RGL di antaranya berat per buah 173 – 347 gram, ketebalan kulit 0,4 – 0,5 cm. Warna kulit buah kuning orange dan warna daging buah orange. Sedangkan karakteristik kimia dari jeruk RGL di antaranya kadar gula 10,51% (12-16°Brix), kadar asam 0,92% dan kandungan vitamin C 18,34 mg/100 g.

Kepala Bidang Hortikultura Dinas Tanaman Pangan Hortikultura dan Perkebunan Provinsi Bengkulu, Oni Aryani mengatakan prospek pengembangan jeruk RGL di Indonesia terutama di Provinsi Bengkulu sangat bagus, baik untuk pasar domestik maupun pasar ekspor. Jeruk RGL memiliki ukuran yang besar dan rasa yang manis segar, menjadikan jeruk ini sangat potensial untuk dikembangkan.

“Penampakan fisik jeruk RGL yang berwarna kuning oranye membuat jeruk varietas ini tidak kalah dengan jeruk impor dan diminati oleh masyarakat. Keunggulan dari jeruk varietas RGL adalah dapat berbuah sepanjang tahun dengan waktu pemanenan dua kali dalam satu tahun pada Mei, Juni, Juli atau pun Oktober, November, Desember,” tambah Oni.

Jeruk varietas RGL sudah ditetapkan sebagai varietas unggul nasional pada 2012, dengan SK No. 2087/Kpts/SA.120/6/2012. Program pengembangan jeruk RGL di Desa PAL VII, Kecamatan Bermani Ulu Raya, Kabupaten Rejang Lebong dimulai 2014. Luas lahan jeruk RGL di wilayah ini hingga awal tahun 2019 mencapai 200 hektare.

Ke depannya, lanjut Oni, kebun jeruk RGL di kabupaten Rejang Lebong akan diperluas menjadi 500 hektare sebagai salah satu upaya pemenuhan permintaan konsumen di dalam negeri.

Kepala Bidang Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura Dinas Pertanian dan Perikanan Kabupaten Rejang Lebong, Ahmad Syafriansyah mengatakan saat ini terdapat tujuh kelompok tani yang menanam jeruk RGL di Desa PAL VII ini, di antaranya Kelompok Tani Citrun Mandiri I, Citrun Mandiri II, Citrun Mandiri III, Makariyo Utomo, Sidodadi, Mawar dan Maju Bersama.

“Ke semua kebun ini telah diregistrasi. Dengan registrasi ini diharapkan dapat memberikan jaminan mutu terhadap konsumen baik secara fisik, biologis ataupun kimiawi terhadap jeruk RGL yang akan dipasarkan,” ujar Ahmad.

Ahmad menerangkan, benih jeruk didapatkan dari Balai Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk dan Buah Subtropika (Balitjestro) dan diberikan secara gratis. “Hingga saat ini, Balitjestro sudah memberikan bantuan benih jeruk RGL sebanyak 28 ribu pohon kepada tujuh kelompok tani di Desa PAL VII, dengan target total 48.000 pohon.”

Langgeng Satria, petani asal Desa PAL VII menjelaskan, jeruk RGL dapat dipanen sepanjang tahun. Dalam satu pohon, dapat menghasilkan 92 – 214 kg buah per tahunnya. Harga jeruk RGL di tingkat petani bervariasi, tergantung dengan grade yang diminta.

“Grade A dengan ukuran buah 3 – 4 buah per kg seharga Rp 17.500, grade B dengan ukuran buah 5 – 6 buah per kg seharga Rp 12.500, grade C dengan ukuran buah 7 – 8 buah per kg seharga Rp 7.500 dan grade D dengan ukuran buah 9 -10 buah per kg Rp 5000,” jelas Langgeng.

Jeruk RGL saat ini sudah dipasarkan ke Bengkulu, Lampung, Jakarta, Sumatera Selatan, Jambi dan Riau. Selain itu, dilakukan kerja sama dengan swasta sebesar 2 ton per hari. Jumlah tersebut terkadang belum bisa terpenuhi oleh petani di wilayah Rejang Lebong.

“Tantangan yang dihadapi saat ini adalah permintaan pasar terhadap jeruk RGL sangat tinggi tetapi produksi belum dapat mencukupi keseluruhan permintaan. Diharapkan produksi jeruk RGL 2 tahun ke depan dapat lebih meningkat,” lanjut Langgeng.

Kabupaten Rejang Lebong sendiri, papar Langgeng, akan mengembangkan lima lokasi sentra terdiri dari Bermani Ulu, Bermani Ulu Raya, Selupu Rejang, Sindang Kelingi dan Sindang Dataran dengan target pengembangan 1.000 hektare sehingga dapat memenuhi kebutuhan domestik dan diekspor ke luar negeri.

Direktur Pengolahan dan Pemasaran Hasil Hortikultura, Yasid Taufik sangat mengapresiasi komitmen dari petani jeruk di Provinsi Bengkulu, khususnya di Kabupaten Rejang Lebong untuk terus mengembangkan kawasan dan meningkatkan kapasitas produksi jeruk RGL.

“Pemerintah perlu berperan aktif untuk membina, memfasilitasi dan mempromosikan jeruk RGL sehingga secara bertahap dapat mengurangi impor jeruk,” ujar Yasid.

Saat ini kesadaran masyarakat terhadap mutu dan keamanan pangan telah meningkat. Ini menjadi tuntutan yang harus dipenuhi oleh para pelaku usaha hortikultura termasuk petani jeruk RGL. Pemahaman yang baik mengenai sistem jaminan mutu sangat diperlukan oleh para petani agar dapat meningkatkan kualitas mutu jeruk sehingga dapat bersaing dengan jeruk impor.

“Tampilan produk hortikultura segar yang baik dan bebas dari kerusakan eksternal merupakan salah satu atribut mutu yang sangat penting,” tambah Yasid.

Yasid menekankan konsistensi mutu melalui penerapan standardisasi produk dari hulu ke hilir. Proses dimulai dari tingkat produksi (Good Agricultural Practices), penanganan pascapanen (Good Handling Practices) pengolahan (Good Manufacturing Practices) dan di tingkat distribusi hingga produk sampai ke tangan konsumen.

Untuk memenuhi tuntutan konsumen terhadap konsistensi mutu, menurut Yasid, kegiatan pasca panen merupakan salah satu tahapan yang penting. Salah satu persyaratan negara pengimpor adalah packing house yang telah teregistrasi. Produk segar yang dikeluarkan dari packing house teregistrasi dianggap telah memenuhi aspek minimal yang dipersyaratkan dalam GAP.

“Oleh karena itu, diharapkan ke depannya petani jeruk RGL dapat memiliki packing house dan meregistrasinya agar dapat meningkatkan kualitas mutu dan daya saing jeruk RGL dengan jeruk impor serta meningkatkan peluang ekspor produk tersebut,” tutupnya.

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