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BUDIDAYA JAHE MERAH DI CILACAP JAWA TENGAH

Jahe merupakan salah satu golongan rimpang yang memiliki banyak khasiat. Tanaman ini telah lama dikenal sebagai salah satu penyedap masakan maupun minuman. Jahe juga dapat dijadikan sebagai bahan obat herbal dan campuran dalam masakan.

Dewasa ini pengembangan jahe sebagai komoditas rimpang digalakkan kembali oleh pemerintah. Salah satu lokasi pengembangannya terdapat di Cilacap, Jawa Tengah.

Kepala Seksi Produksi Benih Langgeng Muhono mengungkapkan dalam kunjungannya di wilayah ini mengatakan, “Kabupaten Cilacap ini sangat potensial apabila dikembangkan menjadi sentra pengembangan jahe, mengingat agroklimat yang mendukung dalam pengembangannya.”

Jenis tanah di Kabupaten Cilacap dominan aluvial terutama aluvial kelabu dan kecoklatan yang berada di wilayah Kecamatan Karangpucung, Sidareja, Patimuan Kroya, Nusawungu, Sampang, Kesugihan dan Cilacap.

Tanah jenis latosol juga terdapat di Kabupaten Cilacap terutama di daerah Pegunungan antara lain di Kecamatan Dayeuhluhur, Wanareja dan sebagian Kecamatan Majenang dan Cimanggu bagian utara. Kondisi topografi dan tanah yang ada, kata Langgeng, memungkingkan untuk lokasi tumbuh kembang tanaman jahe, khususnya jahe merah.

Berdasarkan data statistik pertanian dalam 5 tahun terakhir yakni 2014 – 2018, rata – rata jumlah penanaman jahe 213.720 m2. Sentra pertanaman terdapat di Kecamatan Wanareja (120.000 m2), Kroya (26.000 m2), Jeruklegi (19.700 m2), Karangpucung (18.575 m2), Patimuan (5.900 m2), Majenang (5.800 m2), Dayeuhluhur (4.714 m2) dan Nusawungu (4.544 m2).

Sedangkan rata – rata total produksi sebanyak 472.403 tangkai meliputi Kecamatan Wanareja (302.250 tangkai), Karangpucung (42.804 tangkai), Kroya (39.340 tangkai), Jeruklegi (33.701 tangkai), Majenang (13.560 tangkai), Nusawungu (11.159 tangkai) dan Patimuan (6.580 tangkai).

Waktu panen utama biasanya dilakukan pada triwulan IV dengan kondisi tanaman sebagian habis dibongkar. Sebagian besar sentra pertanaman dan produksi jahe terdapat pada daerah pegunungan. Sedangkan untuk Kroya dan Nusawungu terdapat di dataran rendah.

Penanaman banyak dilakukan di Kecamatan Kroya, Nusawungu dan sekitarnya karena daerah ini terdapat industri jamu baik skala rumah tangga maupun industri menengah.

Penanaman jahe dilakukan swadaya masyarakat secara tumpang sari di bawah tegakan tanaman Perhutani, tanaman perkebunan maupun tanaman lain. Sedangkan di dataran rendah, penanaman jahe di lahan tegalan milik masyarakat. Penanaman lainnya melalui PKK kabupaten dengan melibatkan kelompok wanita tani atau ibu – ibu PKK melalui Program Berlian PKK yang di dalamnya ada kegiatan TOGA.

Dalam kurun waktu 10 tahun, pengembangan jahe sudah dilakukan oleh Pemerintah Kabupaten Cilacap, meskipun tidak setiap tahun dialokasikan anggarannya. Pada 2013 sudah dilaksanakan SLGAP (Sekolah Lapang Good Agricultural Practices) jahe di Desa Brebeg, namun hasil semua bantuan yang diberikan belum dapat berlanjut.

Ini, lanjut Langgeng, karena pemeliharaan kurang intensif, teknologi budidaya masih kurang dikuasai dan petani biasanya membongkar habis tanaman yang dibudidayakan, tidak menyisakan sebagian rimpangnya atau uang penjualannya untuk penyediaan bibit kembali.

Kepala Dinas Pertanian Kabupaten Cilacap, Supriyanto mengungkapkan, “Pada 2019, melalui dana APBN TP Provinsi Jawa Tengah, Kabupaten Cilacap mendapatkan alokasi pengembangan jahe seluas 10 hektare dengan total anggaran sebanyak Rp 120 juta.”

Lokasi pengembangan jahe terletak di kecamatan Wanareja pada Kelompok Tani Waluyo, Desa Limbangan seluas 5 hektare dan kelompok tani Sekar Mukti desa Malabar seluas 5 hektare.

Rencana bantuan yang diberikan dalam 1 hektare berupa benih jahe sebanyak 300 kg, pupuk organik sebanyak 400 kg, trichoderma sebanyak 3 kg dan PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) sebanyak 2 liter. Jumlah benih dan jumlah serta saprotan yang diberikan tidak memenuhi untuk semua luasan dalam 1 hektare karena sifat bantuan adalah stimulan.

Selain 10 hektare untuk pondok pesantren milenial, Kabupaten Cilacap juga mendapatkan alokasi pengembangan jahe seluas 5 hektare bagi Kelompok Usaha Bersama Ukhti Berkah di bawah pengawasan Pondok Pesantren Al – Fiel desa Kesugihan Kidul Kecamatan Kesugihan.

“Semoga bantuan benih jahe dan sarana penunjang produksi tersebut, dapat berguna bagi kami, dan mampu menstimulan para santri lain, untuk aktif dalam budidaya jahe”, ungkap salah satu santri Ponpes Al – Fiel, Kesugihan Kidul.

Direktur Perbenihan Hortikultura, Sukarman menyampaikan harapan ke depan untuk menggiatkan kembali budidaya jahe dengan menstimulasi masyarakat melakukan kunyit, temulawak, temugiring, lengkuas, dan rimpang lain yang berkhasiat obat.

“Masih amat besar potensi untuk dikembangkannya aneka rimpang, agar Indonesia memiliki simplisia (bahan baku) obat herbal, yang diperoleh dari dalam negeri sendiri,” tutur Sukarman.

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