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Pelajaran dari Skandal Cambridge Analytica

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Christopher Wylie, mantan pegawai firma jasa penargetan pasar untuk keperluan bisnis dan politik, beberapa bulan lalu membocorkan suatu tindak kejahatan pelanggaran privasi terbesar dalam sejarah media sosial. Karena itu, investigasi oleh media-media besar, parlemen, dan badan intelijen di Inggris bahkan Amerika Serikat terus dilakukan hingga saat ini.

Pengakuan Wylie, awalnya dimuat di media The New York Times. Kemudian disusul pula oleh dua media lainnya, Britania Raya-Guardian dan Observer. Wylie mengungkap bagaimana firma bernama Cambridge Analytica (CA) merancang strategi penyedotan data pengguna Facebook untuk kemudian dipergunakan dalam merekayasa lebih dari 50 juta profil psikologis pemilih.

Hasil penyedotan data itu dijadikan bahan dasar untuk menarget pemilih-pemilih potensial dengan kampanye-kampanye politik yang cocok dengan karakter psikologisnya.

Wylie tentu saja tidak bekerja sendirian, dia hanyalah salah satu. Wylie bekerja di bawah arahan kepala juru kampanye Donald Trump bernama Steve Bannon pada 2014-2016 silam. Bannon sempat mengepalai perusahaan induk CA, yakni Strategic Communication Laboratories (SCL) yang mendapat gelontoran dana dari Robert Mercer, seorang konglomerat sekaligus pendukung utama Donald Trump.

Penguasaan Data dan Kutub-kutub Politik

Kecurigaan publik pun semakin menyeruak ketika kegaduhan semacam ini makin jelas terbaca sebagai puncak pertarungan antara kelompok Republikan dan Demokrat dalam keremangan ruang bernama media sosial.

Permainan curi dan olah data dengan teknologi analitik bukan hal yang mengejutkan dalam politik.  Data sebagai bahan baku utama dalam pengambilan keputusan merupakan produk dari hubungan antar-aktor yang lihai dalam mengutak-atik teknologi (Prof Evelyn Ruppert).

Bahkan, aktor-aktor di luar kelompok Republikan dan Demokrat diisukan terlibat sebagaimana mencuatnya tudingan campur tangan Rusia yang sempat berhembus beberapa waktu lalu. Hal ini bertendensi memenangkan Trump pada pemilu lalu.

Beberapa berita yang beredar juga menyebut CEO CA, Alexander Nix  sempat menghubungi Direktur Wikileaks, Julian Assange sempat  berkaitan dengan kebocoran data-data email. Di dalam data tersebut terdapat arsip rahasia milik Hillary Clinton.

Tahun 2017 laporan Kantor direktur Intelijen Nasional Amerika (ODNI),  menyatakan bahwa Presiden Vladimir Putin membantu Donald Trump memenangkan pemilu dengan cara menyudutkan reputasi Hillary Clinton melalui pengartikulasian media, akun-akun media sosial bayaran (trolls), dan aktifitas siber dari pihak-pihak perantara yang didanai pemerintah Rusia.

Pihak perantara yang dimaksud dalam dokumen itu mengarah kepada mitra kerja CA, yaitu Global Science Research (GSR) yang dipimpin oleh Aleksandr Kogan, seorang asisten Profesor di Universitas St. Petersburg. Dia bersama rekan-rekannya di Universitas Cambridge, Inggris, meneliti tentang kondisi emosional pengguna Facebook dengan kecondongan afiliasi politik dengan bantuan dana dari pemerintah Rusia.

Di tangan Kogan inilah, anggota timnya berhasil mengembangkan aplikasi tes kepribadian di Facebook dan menyedot seluruh data-data pribadi penggunanya untuk selanjutnya disetor kepada CA sebagai bagian dari kontrak kerja sama bernilai jutaan dolar.

Benang merah yang bisa ditarik dalam konteks rekayasa data adalah kenyataan bahwa teknologi menjadi panggung penggambaran yang jelas dari lekatnya aktor intelektual dan politik. Kemesraan diantara keduanya yang diikat oleh kepentingan ekonomi ternyata bergerak menjauhi model demokrasi inklusif dan bebas dari manipulasi.

Sebaliknya, praktik berdemokrasi malah terjungkal dalam sebuah teknopolitik (technopolitics), yang disebut oleh Gagliardone (2014) justru menghambat proses-proses politik yang terbuka (hlm. 16). Hambatan itu diperparah dengan ketidaknetralan Facebook.

Sebuah laporan jurnalistik oleh, menunjukkan adanya indikasi persekongkolan antara Facebook dengan CA. Pasalnya, Facebook bukan tidak mengetahui terjadinya perampokan data oleh CA, namun raksasa internet itu lebih memilih diam, mengambil untung, dan mencari jalan aman dengan mewajibkan pengembang (pihak ketiga) menghapus seluruh data-data yang sudah di-ekstrak dari Facebook.

Akan tetapi, nasib tidak baik menimpa CA dan Facebook sendiri. CA yang dengan sengaja tidak menghapus hasil pencurian data itu membuat Facebook belakangan disorot dan mendapat tekanan yang intens dari berbagai pengambil kebijakan akibat keterlibatannya dalam taktik kotor pemenangan pemilu di banyak negara.

Pelajaran Penting

Terbongkarnya skandal CA layak dijadikan sebuah pembelajaran berharga dalam memelihara demokrasi kita, terutama pada era digital dan perang data.

Skandal ini sekaligus menjadi sinyal yang mendesak kita untuk menyiapkan segala perbekalan yang krusial, utamanya dalam menghadapi musim pemilu 2019 mendatang agar terhindar dari skenario perampokan data dan kerugian sosial-politik yang lebih besar.

Langkah urgen tersebut menyangkut sosialisasi, penyadaran, dan edukasi luas tentang pentingnya menjaga privasi dalam bermedia sosial. Layanan situs jejaring sosial tidak diberikan secara cuma-cuma, tetapi tiap posting, like, comment yang kita lakukan dihitung sebagai data pribadi yang bernilai ekonomi tinggi.

Jika tidak yakin dengan sistem kerahasiaan dan keamanan data suatu situs, alangkah lebih baik jika pengguna tidak memberikan keterangan-keterangan yang sifatnya sensitif dan personal. Kecerobohan dalam membagi informasi personal sangat rawan dipergunakan oleh pihak-pihak yang tidak bertanggung jawab.

Meskipun gerakan #deletefacebook masih santer dikampanyekan, pemerintah masih relatif bergeming. Sebagai negara pengguna Facebook terbesar ke-4 di dunia, Indonesia dapat segera melakukan renegosiasi tentang kebijakan perlindungan privasi dengan Facebook dan menegaskan konsekuensi hukum dari pelanggaran privasi.

Sekalipun Facebook telah mengubah kebijakan privasinya di pertengahan 2015 lalu, tetapi potensi penyalahgunaan data itu kerap membayangi semenjak Facebook memegang lebih dari 110 juta data pengguna Indonesia. Publik harus terus waspada dan menjaga kesadaran berpolitik agar tidak meleng, sehingga sabotase demokrasi itu dapat dicegah.

Febby Widjayanto

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