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Match-Fixing: Anda Jual, Saya Beli!

Ilustrasi: Luki Ahmadi Hari Wardoyo

Isu pengaturan pertandingan atau Match-Fixing dalam persepakbolaan Indonesia kembali menjadi perbincangan hangat akhir-akhir ini. Setidaknya ada dua hal yang menjadi pemicu utamanya. Pertama adalah eksekusi penalti dari salah satu pemain PS Mojokerto Putra (PSMP) yang terlihat tidak berniat untuk memasukkan bola ke dalam gawang Aceh United di babak 8 besar Liga 2. Pemicu yang kedua adalah pengakuan narasumber pada Mata Najwa edisi “PSSI Bisa Apa?”. Salah satu narasumber,  Januar Herwanto, yang juga merupakan manajer dari Madura FC mengaku pernah dihubungi oleh Hidayat, salah satu anggota Komite Eksekutif PSSI, dan ditawarkan sejumlah uang dengan syarat Madura FC bersedia untuk mengalah saat menghadapi PSS Sleman. Lima hari setelah tayangan tersebut, Hidayat kemudian secara resmi mengundurkan diri dari jabatannya meskipun menyatakan bahwa dirinya tidak pernah terlibat dalam hal yang dituduhkan. Kedua hal ini lalu menimbulkan banyak reaksi yang tentunya mengkritik kinerja PSSI, bukan hanya karena Ketua PSSI yang secara bersamaan menjabat sebagai Gubernur Sumatera Utara, tapi juga dikarenakan langkah PSSI untuk mengatasi pengaturan pertandingan dalam sepakbola Indonesia belum menunjukkan bentuk yang progresif.

Memahami Match-Fixing Bekerja

David Forrest dalam Match Fixing: An Economics Perspective menjelaskan bahwa fenomena Match-Fixing dalam sepakbola merupakan dampak dari bertemunya penawaran dan permintaan di mana manipulasi pertandingan adalah layanan yang diperjualbelikan.

Penawaran bisa datang dari beragam pihak yang terlibat langsung dalam pertandingan, mulai dari wasit, pelatih, tim medis, sampai pemain bisa saja menawarkan layanan manipulasi. Namun dari semua pihak yang mungkin terlibat, wasit dan pemainlah yang paling sering. Tapi perlu dipahami bahwa wasit memiliki risiko yang lebih besar dalam teridentifikasi terlibat dalam menjual manipulasi pertandingan jika dibandingkan dengan pemain. Hal ini menyebabkan bentuk umum dalam jual-beli manipulasi justru lebih melibatkan pemain, khususnya pemain bertahan. Pemain bertahan bisa saja dengan sengaja memperlambat larinya atau membuka ruang tembak bagi pemain lawan untuk mencetak gol. Tentunya hal ini seringkali terlihat sebagai kelalaian dibanding kesengajaan karena terlihat jauh lebih natural dibandingkan dengan wasit yang memberikan tendangan penalti atau kartu merah dengan kontroversial.

Dalam memutuskan untuk menawarkan manipulasi, pemain sepakbola punya kalkulasi untung-ruginya tersendiri. Dari segi keuntungan, jumlah uang yang ditawarkan tentu saja menjadi faktor yang utama dan besarannya kadang dipengaruhi oleh seberapa besar tingkat keberhasilan skema manipulasi bisa dijalankan dan berhasil. Di sisi lain, kerugian bisa mencakup beberapa hal. Pertama adalah risiko terdeteksi dan ancaman sanksi yang bisa saja didapatkan, misalnya mendapatkan larangan bermain yang tentunya akan berimbas pada pendapatan pemain atau bisa juga kehilangan kesempatan untuk menjadi juara. Kedua adalah nilai jual pemain bisa saja menurun karena konsekuensi dari kesalahan yang sengaja ia perbuat dalam pertandingan dan ketiga bisa jadi pemain mendapatkan tekanan psikologi karena telah menjual integritasnya sebagai atlet.

Pada intinya, semakin ancaman kerugian bisa ditekan, maka semakin tinggi pula harga manipulasi yang bisa ditawarkan. Harga juga terkadang ditentukan oleh situasi pertandingan dan keadaan pemain baik dari segi kegemilangan karir, usia, atau gaji dari tim.

Dari segi permintaan, David Forrest menyatakan bahwa Match-Fixing bisa berasal dari pihak internal ataupun eksternal tim. Pemilik atau manajemen tim bisa jadi masuk dalam kategori ini karena pada kondisi tertentu kekalahan pada pertandingan justru lebih menguntungkan klub secara finansial. Selain masuk dalam kategori sebelumnya, pemain juga bisa berada di sisi permintaan yang biasanya dilatarbelakangi karena adanya kesempatan untuk mendapatkan keuntungan besar dalam perjudian. Namun secara umum permintaan manipulasi pada kasus Match-Fixing kebanyakan berasal dari pihak-pihak yang terlibat dalam bursa taruhan. Keuntungan yang besar di bursa taruhan sangat mungkin didapatkan dengan cara membeli manipulasi pertandingan yang ditawarkan di lapangan atau bahkan diinisiasi sendiri. Di sinilah manipulasi mendapatkan nilai ekonominya.

Setidaknya ada dua faktor utama yang mempengaruhi tinggi-rendahnya permintaan terhadap manipulasi. Faktor pertama adalah likuiditas atau jumlah maksimum taruhan yang bisa dipasang oleh petaruh di bursa taruhan. Biasanya likuiditas memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan dalam bursa taruhan yang menggunakan model Betting Exchange. Berbeda dengan model judi biasanya, di mana petaruh akan memasang sejumlah taruhan dan melawan operator judi (sistem ini lazim ditemukan pada platform judi daring seperti Sbobet), model Betting Exchange justru mempertemukan petaruh satu sama lain dengan prinsip dasar bahwa model ini hanya akan mempertemukan dua petaruh yang sepadan. Penjudi besar hanya akan bertemu dengan penjudi besar lainnya. Inilah yang menentukan likuiditas di bursa taruhan yang secara konsekuensi tidak hanya akan menentukan tinggi rendahnya permintaan manipulasi pertandingan, tapi juga menentukan seberapa besar harga transaksi jual-beli manipulasi nantinya.

Risiko teridentifikasi dan ancaman hukum adalah faktor kedua yang mempengaruhi tinggi-rendahnya permintaan manipulasi. Namun perlu dipahami bahwa mengidentifkasi adanya jual-beli manipulasi pada bursa taruhan tidaklah semudah menemukan kejanggalan yang dilakukan oleh pemain atau wasit di lapangan. Pada negara di mana perjudian merupakan bagian dari liga sepakbolanya, identifikasi kecurangan akan sedikit lebih mudah dilakukan terutama ketika terjadi perubahan signifikan dan tiba-tiba pada kondisi di bursa taruhan. Tetapi bagi negara yang tidak menerapkan sistem yang sama, identifikasi akan sulit digunakan karena federasi, pelaksana liga, atau pihak berwenang lainnya tidak memiliki akses ke bursa taruhan. Hal ini yang kemudian menyebabkan tingginya permintaan Match-Fixing pada liga-liga dengan kondisi yang kedua.

Langkah Pencegahan

Memahami Match-Fixing menggunakan pendekatan penawaran dan permintaan tentunya tidak hanya mengantarkan kita kepemahaman bagaimana Match­-Fixing bekerja, tapi juga membuat kita bisa mengenal siapa saja pihak yang bisa terlibat dan juga langkah memeranginya. Lydia Segal dalam The Role of the Academe in Sports Integrity: The Objectives and Shape of a Sports Integrity Training Course” bahwa banyak ahli telah menawarkan bentuk program untuk mengatasi peristiwa Match-Fixing pada sepakbola seperti penguatan hukum sampai pengaturan bursa judi secara legal. Namun, hal yang terlewatkan adalah bahwa unsur mikro dalam sepakbola seperti wasit atau pemain sebagai individu punya kehendak bebas untuk memutuskan apakah akan terlibat dalam Match-Fixing atau tidak. Oleh karena itu Segal menekankan pentingnya peran akademi dalam meningkatkan integritas pemain. Peran akademi tidak hanya mengembangkan keahlian bermain, tapi juga punya tiga tujuan etis. Yang pertama adalah meningkatkan kesadara moral yang akan berpengaruh ke tujuan kedua yaitu Moral Reasoning. Tujuan kedua ini bisa diartikan sebagai cara berpikir di mana individu mendasari tindakannya dengan pertimbangan dibenarkan secara moral atau tidak. Tujuan terakhir adalah melatih keahlian pemain dalam mengatasi tekanan dan situasi sulit yang bisa menyebabkan Match-Fixing.

Tapi saya pikir bahwa solusi ini setidaknya memiliki beberapa prasyarat. Yang pertama adalah kemampuan tim dalam menjamin kemampuan finansial pemain. Tidak bisa dipungkiri bahwa gaji rendah merupakan umpan yang sangat empuk bagi pelaku Match-Fixing, terlebih lagi pada pemain yang memang memilki skill yang mumpuni. Hal inilah yang menyebabkan 6 pemain Persib, 3 Pemain PSM, dan 1 Pemain Persebaya memutuskan untuk terlibat dalam salah satu skandal pengaturan skor yang mencoreng wajah sepakbola Indonesia di tahun 1962 yang dikenal dengan sebutan Skandal Senayan.

Selain itu langkah tegas federasi yang bersifat makro dan kolaboratif tentunya juga dibutuhkan. Dalam lingkup global hal ini telah dijalankan oleh FIFA yang bekerja sama dengan INTERPOL. Di mana bentuk kerjasama tersebut menghasilkan sebuah kerangka pencegahan dan penanggulangan Match-Fixing yang dibangun di atas lima prinsip dasar, kemitraan, Informasi, Koordinasi, Pencegahan, dan Proaktif.

Langkah serupa sebenarnya pernah dimulai oleh kepengurusan PSSI di masa kepemimpinan Kardono. Seperti yang diterangkan Majalah TEMPO edisi 7 April 1984 yang bertajuk “Suap!!! Buat Apa Galatama?” bahwa saat itu PSSI menjalin kerjasama dengan Kapolri dan Kejagung untuk menumpas kasus suap-menyuap pada sepakbola. Jauh sebelumnya, Ali Sadikin dalam masa kepemimpinannya juga terkenal tegas dalam memerangi kasus suap-menyuap yang santer terjadi saat ia memimpin federasi. Meskipun akhirnya dipenuhi oleh kecaman karena kasus Sepakbola Gajah, namun masa kepemimpinan Azwar Anas bisa dibilang tegas dalam menyikapi kasus pengaturan pertandingan. Azwar Anas diketahui menjadi ketua umum PSSI yang berani menjatuhkan sanksi tegas kepada 40 wasit yang teridentifikasi terlibat dalam pengaturan skor.

Yang perlu digarisbawahi pada contoh di atas adalah kepemimpinan yang kuat pada tubuh PSSI. Kepemimpinan yang kuat ini kemudian diikuti oleh prestasi tim nasional Indonesia. Di bawah kepemimpinan Kardono, Indonesia pernah menjadi yang terkuat di Asia Tenggara dengan merebut medali emas SEA Games di tahun 1987 dan 1991, prestasi yang belum pernah terulang sampai saat ini. Pada masa kepemimpinan Azwar Anas, untuk pertama kalinya Indonesia berlaga di Piala Asia dan bahkan Indonesia pernah mencapai peringkat ke-76 di masa kepemimpinannya. Meskipun tak sementereng prestasi para juniornya, tapi di masa kepemimpinan Ali Sadikinlah UU No. 11/1980 yang memberikan ancaman hukum bagi pelaku suap-menyuap lahir. Wajar jika kemudian saat ini kepemimpinan Edy Rahmayadi menjadi sasaran kritik oleh berbagai pihak, karena Indonesia punya jejak sejarah di mana kepemimpinan PSSI yang baik berkorelasi positif dengan prestasi Timnas. Namun dengan kondisi rangkap jabatan dan melihat beberapa komentar kontroversialnya di media, sepertinya menumpukan harapan besar pada Edy Rahmayadi untuk memutus rantai penawaran dan permintaan Match-Fixing di sepakbola Indonesia nampaknya cukup sulit.

 

Rahmat Syarif

Rahmat Syarif

Pegiat Rumah Baca Philosophia Makassar dan Mahasiswa Nonprofit Studies di Queensland University of Technology Australia

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Rahmat Syarif

Rahmat Syarif

Pegiat Rumah Baca Philosophia Makassar dan Mahasiswa Nonprofit Studies di Queensland University of Technology Australia

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