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Dibalik Pernyataan Prabowo Soal “Tampang Boyolali”

Ilustrasi (Sumber foto: sinarharapan.co)

Pidato Prabowo saat meresmikan Kantor Badan Pemenangan di Boyolali sontak jadi viral dan tak lama menuai kontroversi. Persoalan membesar akibat Prabowo menyebut “tampang Boyolali” pada pidatonya. Tampang Boyolali dijadikan Prabowo sebagai analogi saat ia menjelaskan persoalan kemiskinan dan ketimpangan di Indonesia. Ia mengilustrasikan ketimpangan di Indonesia dengan pertumbuhan ekonomi Jakarta yang diindikatorkan dengan adanya gedung-gedung tinggi dan hotel-hotel mewah dan ternama di dunia.

Prabowo menyebut “dan saya yakin kalian nggak pernah masuk hotel-hotel tersebut, betul? Mungkin kalian diusir, tampang kalian tidak tampang orang Kaya, tampang kalian ya tampang orang Boyolali ini“. Banyak pihak yang menganggap pernyataan Prabowo tersebut sebagai penghinaan bahkan pelecehan kepada sekelompok orang tertentu. Tampang Boyolali dianggap sebagai bentuk kekerasan simbolik, yang bermakna “merendahkan” kelas tertentu di masyarakat.

Pernyataan “Tampang Boyolali” juga bisa diartikan sebagai metafora untuk menunjuk kepada mereka “orang-orang desa/kampung” yang selalu identik dengan kemiskinan, ketertinggalan dan katro, yang jauh dari kehidupan yang megah, kemajuan dan gemerlap ibukota. Semua orang bisa mengartikan apa saja yang dimaksud dengan pernyataan Prabowo tentang “Tampang Boyolali”. Akan tetapi, tentunya ia bukan hanya sekedar metafor atau kekerasan simbolik semata. Jauh lebih dari itu, ia memuat modus operandi yang hendak dituju, apalagi jika dikaitkan dengan persoalan ketimpangan ekonomi dan politik elektoral yang sudah ada didepan mata.

Prabowo dan Retorika Ketimpangan

Retorika tentang ketimpangan ekonomi bukanlah hal yang baru dalam sejumlah pidato Prabowo. Dalam beberapa momen Prabowo kerap menyinggung persoalan ketimpangan dalam pidatonya. Dalam acara Prabowo Menyapa Rakyat Jawa Barat di Hotel Bumi Wiyata, Depok, Jawa Barat, Prabowo menyinggung soal ketimpangan 1 persen orang kaya denga 99 persen orang miskin yang menurutnya akibat Indonesia menganut sistem neoliberalisme.

“Neolib ini sistem menetes ke bawah. Dari 1% orang kaya, sisa kekayaannya menetes ke 99% orang miskin. Netesnya kapan? Nunggu kita mati semua baru menetes”

Dalam sambutannya pada acara bedah buku “Paradoks Indonesia” di Hotel Sahid Jaya, Jakarta, Prabowo juga kembali melontarkan retorika ketimpangan ekonomi. Dalam sambutan tersebut ia menyebut gap antara orang kaya dan miskin sangat ekstrem.

“Ada orang Indonesia yang kaya raya. Di Indonesia 40 orang terkaya kekayaannya 584 ribu kali rata-rata orang Indonesia. Satu persen menguasai setengah kekayaan, 10 persen terkaya menguasai 75 persen kekayaan Indonesia,”

Ketika menghadiri acara Rapat Kerja Nasional (Rakernas) Lembaga Dakwah Islam Indonesia (LDII) di Jakarta, Prabowo juga menyebut rasio gini (suatu indikator untuk menunjukkan ketimpangan) di Indonesia sebesar 45,4.

“Gini ratio itu adalah sebuah perbandingan yang disusun ahli-ahli dunia untuk menggambarkan pemerataan, adil atau tidak. Gini ratio Indonesia sekarang adalah disebut dengan angka, gini ratio kita adalah 45,4. Artinya 1% dari rakyat kita menguasai 45% kekayaan,”

Tak hanya itu, dalam acara Silaturahmi Relawan Emak-emak Binangkit dan relawan Prabowo- Sandi Provinsi Bali, di Inna Hotel Heritage Jalan Veteran, Denpasar-Bali, Prabowo kembali berpidato dengan retorika ketimpangannya. Ia menyebut bahwa kekayaan bangsa ini hanya dinikmati oleh segelintir orang saja dan sisanya hidup dalam kesulitan yang menurutnya sesuai dengan riset Bank Dunia.

“Kita melihat keadaan yang paradoks dan janggal. Setelah 73 tahun merdeka yang kaya hanya segelintir orang saja. Dan ini bukan saya karang. Hasil ini data dan fakta yang diakui oleh bank dunia. Yang menikmati kekayaan Indonesia kurang dari 1 persen, yang 99 persen mengalami hidup yang sangat pas-pasan bisa dikatakan sangat sulit,”

Semua retorika ketimpangan ini seakan menutupi kenyataan bahwa Prabowo adalah salah satu orang terkaya di negeri ini. Berdasarkan Laporan Harta Kekayaan Pejabat Negara (LHKPN) yang dirilis oleh KPK, Prabowo memiliki harta senilai total Rp1,95 Triliun. Jika dibandingkan LHKPN tahun 2014, nilai kekayaan Prabowo saat ini mengalami kenaikan. Empat tahun lalu, kekayaan Prabowo sebesar Rp 1,67 triliun dan mata uang dolar sebesar US$ 7,5 juta.

Adik Prabowo, Hashim Djojohadikusumo masuk ke dalam daftar orang terkaya di Indonesia versi Majalah Globe Asia. Total kekayaan Hashim sebesar US$ 915 juta atau setara dengan Rp 13 triliun. Banyak bisnis Hashim bergerak dibidang pertambangan, perkebunan, dan logistik. Dan saat ini ia menjabat sebagai Wakil Ketua Dewan Pembina Partai Gerindra.

Selain Hashim, Sandiaga Uno, Cawapres Prabowo juga salah satu orang terkaya di Republik ini. Berdasarkan data LKHPN, kekayaan calon wakil presiden Sandiaga Uno mencapai Rp 5,099 triliun. Jumlah kekayaan ini meningkat dibandingkan yang tercatat dalam LHKPN tahun 2016. Dua tahun lalu, kekayaan Sandiaga tercatat sebesar Rp 3,8 triliun dan US$ 10,34 juta. Peningkatan kekayaan Sandiaga disumbang kenaikan signifikan dari kepemilikan surat berharga. Dalam LHKPN 2018, jumlah surat berharga yang dimiliki Sandiaga sebesar Rp 4,7 triliun. Padahal, pada 2016 jumlah surat berharga Sandiaga hanya sebesar Rp 3,7 triliun dan US$ 1,28 juta.

Retorika ketimpangan yang terus dilontarkan Prabowo dalam sejumlah pidatonya juga seakan menutupi kenyataan bahwa nama Prabowo tercantum dalam Paradise Papers, sebuah dokumen yang mengungkap nama sejumlah elit dan pengusaha Indonesia yang menyembunyikan hartanya ke luar negeri untuk menghindari pajak. Bersama dua anggota Keluarga Cendana lainnya; Mamiek dan Tommy Suharto, nama Prabowo terdaftar ikut mendirikan perusahaan cangkang di Bermuda dan Bahama. Bahkan nama Sandiaga Uno, juga sekaligus tercantum dalam dua dokumen yang mengungkap penyembunyian harta dan penggelapan pajak tersebut, yakni Panama Papers dan Paradise Papers. Dalam dokumen tersebut, nama Sandiaga terdaftar sebagai direktur dan pemegang saham dari beberapa perusahaan cangkang.

Bukan hal yang tak mungkin, bahwa penyembunyian harta di luar negeri berkaitan dengan upaya penghindaran dan penggelapan pajak. Sudah jadi rahasia umum, tujuan para konglomerat dan orang superkaya menyembunyikan hartanya di luar negeri yakni untuk meminimalkan beban pajak yang harus dibayar di negara asalnya maupun di negara dimana penghasilan diperoleh (source country). Keuntungan usaha dialihkan ke negara-negara surga pajak sehingga tidak dapat dijangkau oleh negara asal ataupun negara sumber penghasilan. Penghindaran pajak dilakukan dengan memanfaatkan kelemahan peraturan perpajakan melalui berbagai macam skema penghindaran.

Padahal salah satu penyebab terbesar terjadinya ketimpangan sosial akibat orang superkaya dengan mudah menghindari pajak dengan memindahkan hartanya ke negara suaka pajak (tax haven). Skema penghindaran inilah yang menghambat pemberlakuan pajak progresif, pajak sebagai instrumen keadilan sosial dimana semakin tinggi pendapatan seseorang maka ia harus membayar pajak semakin tinggi sebagai upaya distribusi kekayaan. Dengan semakin banyaknya harta yang disembunyikan di negeri suaka pajak, maka semakin banyak konglomerat yang tidak membayar pajak secara proporsional sesuai kekayaan atau pendapatan yang diperolehnya. Dari sinilah kemudian pola ketimpangan ekonomi itu terjadi; saat standar hidup masyarakat bawah dan menengah meningkat secara perlahan, sejumlah kecil warga sangat kaya di lapisan atas dengan cepat meninggalkan warga lainnya.

Prabowo: Oligarki Populis?

Dengan menilai antara retorika Prabowo dengan fakta dirinya sebagai salah satu orang terkaya (berikut Hashim dan juga Sandiaga Uno) kita melihat paradoks yang menyelimuti politik yang dilakukan oleh Prabowo. Retorika ketimpangan yang kerap ia lontarkan terus menerus bertentangan dengan kenyataan bahwa ia juga termasuk dalam kelompok Oligarki, salah satu penyebab ketimpangan ekonomi di negeri ini.

Namun dengan pidatonya yang penuh dengan retorika ketimpangan, Prabowo sedang menjalankan politik populisme. Seperti populisme yang sedang merebak akhir-akhir ini, ia beroperasi dengan mengklaim mewakili “orang-orang yang merasa dikecualikan atau terpinggirkan dari kehidupan politik nasional” dan berjanji “untuk menyelamatkan mereka dari krisis, ancaman, dan musuh”. Ia layaknya seperti Trump, Hitler dan Thaksin Shinawatra, mengutuk perilaku elit namun sejatinya ia adalah bagian dari elit itu sendiri.

Apalagi fakta yang tak bisa ditampik bahwa ia berasal dari Keluarga Soeharto, sebuah rezim oligarki sultanik yang berkuasa selama 32 tahun dengan praktik perburuan rente dan kroni bisnis. Edward Aspinall menyebutnya Oligarchic Populism, sebuah politik populisme yang dijalankan oleh elite oligarki untuk meraup suara demi memperoleh kekuasaan. Bahkan dalam karyanya Oligarchic Populism: Prabowo Subianto’s Challenge to Indonesian Democracy, Aspinall menyebutkan ada hubungan erat antara sifat daya tarik dan kritik politiknya di satu sisi, dengan fondasi kekayaan keluarganya di sisi yang lain.

Menurut Aspinall, sikap populis dan nasionalisme-chauvisnya dalam kebijakan ekonomi mencerminkan kepentingan sektor modal Indonesia di era Orde Baru yang bergantung pada ekstraksi sumber daya alam dan perburuan rente, dimana di sektor tersebut Prabowo menjadi pemain penting. Bentuk populismenya adalah salah satu bentuk artikulasi politik dari kepentingan elit ekonomi ekstraktif dalam periode boom minyak/komoditas.

Populisme oligarkis yang ditampilkan Prabowo adalah bauran antara gaya militeristik (nostalgia Orde Baru) dengan demagogi anti-asing dan retorika mengutuk penjarahan harta dan menjual negara. Bukan hanya itu, seperti pada pidato yang sering ia lontarkan, retorika Prabowo juga seringkali memuat kritiknya terhadap “neo-liberal” atau liberalisasi ekonomi dengan nada yang menggelegar. Namun di lain sisi, ia berkeinginan memajukan kebijakan perlindungan untuk komoditas perdagangan domestik. Padahal banyak bisnis Prabowo yang bergerak di sektor komoditas.

Dengan kata lain, retorika populis Prabowo baik soal ketimpangan dan anti-asing bahkan soal tampang boyolali bukan semata-mata penghinan atau metafor dan kekerasan simbolik. Melainkan memuat kepentingan bisnis dirinya dan keluarganya.

Arjuna Putra Aldino

Mahasiswa Pascasarjana, Sekolah Kajian Stratejik dan Global, Universitas Indonesia

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Tentang Penulis

Arjuna Putra Aldino

Mahasiswa Pascasarjana, Sekolah Kajian Stratejik dan Global, Universitas Indonesia

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